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THE TWIN TILTS OF THE SPIN
AXES OF MARS AND EARTH

Donald W. Patten and Samuel R. Windsor

Earth Rotation Rate 1436 minutes, Mars Rotation Rate
1477 minutes

Similarity 98.2%

Earth Spin Axis Tilt 23.44 degrees, Mars Spin Axis Tilt
23.98 Degrees

Similarity 97.7%

In circles astronomical and cosmological, for over a century now, it has been
realized that Mars and the Earth have nearly identical spin rates. In
addition they have nearly identical spin axis tilts. This essay addresses the
second of these two phenomena; the first phenomenon is addressed in another of
our essays, one not yet published.

The question has been raised now for over a century whether either of these
twin similarities is due to "coincidence" or to "process". To date, the
conclusion of "coincidence" has numerous adherents simply because no
"process" has been presented. We present a process for acquisition of twin
spin axis tilts herein. This is a first time presentation.

THE QUILT AND ITS COMPONENTS

Typically a quilt will be a collage of dozens upon dozens of smaller designs,
smaller scenes or patterns. Each pattern may be a square as small as four
inches on a side. When assembled all together and sewn together,
collectively they comprise a quilt. Many quilts are remarkable works of art
while their individual squares are not very remarkable. The collage presents
the overview of each significant part.

Our collage, or quilt we entitle "The Scars of Mars." There are over a dozen
different kinds of scars of Mars. Taken together, they reveal a pattern of
repeated, even periodic catastrophism. The over all pattern of the parts is
best illustrated in our Figure 1.

THE THIRD ORBIT OF MARS

Figure 1 shows the "Second Orbit of the Earth," one with an orbit of 92,250,
000 miles, which is about 0.76% less in distance than the Earth's modern
orbit. In energy the former orbit of the Earth received about 1.5% more
solar radiation than does the modern orbit of the Earth, at 92,959,000 miles.
(Energy varies with the square of the distance.) In period, the old Earth
orbit was 361 days compared to the modern period, 365.256 days.

Figure 1 also shows the "Second Orbit of Venus", one slightly farther out,
having about 0.6% more energy than the modern orbit of Venus. Figure 1 also
shows the "Third Orbit of Mars." That orbit crossed in two locations each,
the orbits of both Venus and the Earth. Since the planets are co-planar, when
Mars and the other planet were both there, the result was Mars-Earth Wars
and in addition, Mars-Venus Wars.

Figure 1 shows the perihelion of Mars at 65,000,000 miles and its aphelion out
in the region where the asteroids now roam, 230,000,000 miles. It portrays
the third orbit of Mars with an eccentricity of .55. By comparison, the
major asteroids have eccentricities ranging from .08 (Ceres) to .34
(Bamberga). And by comparison, the modern orbit of Mars, rather roundish,
has an eccentricity of .093. The Earth's orbit eccentricity is .0l7.

Figure 1 portrays Mars crossing the Earth orbit twice. When approaching the
Sun, it crossed our old orbit on what we may term "the October 24 location."
That is where the Earth was on October 24, and sometimes, Mars also. The
second crossing was the March 20-21 location, and both planets nearly met
there occasionally also.

The Romans had two anniversaries of recalling fear of Mars. Those were their
"tubulustrium" (day of trouble) on March 21. The other was their
"armilustrium" (day of alarm about approaches of Ares). The ancient Hebrews
had their counterparts, their "passover" (the night of March 20-21) and their
great and fearful "Day of the Lord."

In Latin, Mars is a "slur" word, from "magna" (large) and "Ares" (Greek for
Mars). Thus the Latin armilustrium is cognate with "Ares". The Latin
tubulustrium (day of trouble and turmoil in the heavens) was cognate with the
Germanic Tyr, also Mars.

A typical quilt is comprised of dozens and dozens of lesser squares, each one
significant. Figure 1 illustrates the "bigger pattern" into which the
smaller squares are fit. Our quilt is "the Mars-Earth Wars." Among the
smaller squares we present eleven of the "Scars of Mars." Ancient scars of
the Earth and Venus are omitted, with two exceptions. One exception is the
Earth's tilt at 23.44 degrees, so similar to the tilt of Mars at 24.98
degrees. This similarity in tilts was the result of a process we shall
describe shortly.

ELEVEN SMALL SQUARES IN THE QUILT

Piece # 1. Briefly, this piece is the fact that 93% of the craters on Mars
are in one hemisphere. The center of that hemisphere is located at 45
degrees S. latitude and 320 degrees W. longitude. There is a well-defined
rim to this hemisphere, defined by where crater densities drop off. The
"Serene Hemisphere" of Mars thus has only 7% of its craters, but 50% of its
surface.

Piece # 2. The largest crater in the Solar System is the Hellas Crater of
Mars, located close to the center point of the Hemisphere of Craters. Hellas
is 1,000 miles in one diameter, the longitudinal, and 1,100 miles in the
latitudinal diameter. We believe it was created by the core chunk of a
fragmenting body, a fragment about the size of Pluto.

Figure 1

Piece # 3. According to Roche's Limit, fragmentation of a smaller approaching
body would occur at about 5,500 miles from the center of Mars, which is 3,400
miles above its surface. Almost opposite to the giant Hellas Crater is the
gigantic Tharsis Bulge on Mars, some 4.5 miles high and 3,200 miles broad,
scar piece # 3. A diagonal drawn from the center of Tharsis through the
center of Hellas should give the trajectory of Astra, as it approached Mars,
only to disintegrate into explosive fragments.

Piece # 4. The great majority of the fragments that missed Mars assumed
orbits around the Sun. The average perihelion of the fifteen largest
asteroids is 225,000,000 miles from the Sun. This defines where, in the
Second Orbit of Mars, it encountered Astra. It also defines where (225,000,
000 miles distant from the Sun) and how the asteroids were created. But not
when.

Piece # 5. The two tiny satellites of Mars are fragment-shaped, and are
thoroughly spotted with pitlets and craterlets. Both are so "measled", and
other, inner asteroids such as Gaspra are similarly measled with pitlets.
These are three indications that Mars formerly had a ring system and there
were many collisions between Deimos and miscellaneous debris, also between
Phobos and Gaspra and miscellaneous debris.

Incidentally Gaspra approaches the Earth on our March 23 location in space.
This is an indication Gaspra was swept out of the ring system of Mars during
a passover flyby, or tubulustrium flyby, the night of March 21-22. Other
inner asteroids include Amon, Eros, Apollo and Icarus which we suspect also
have been measled with pitlets.

Tiny bits of debris, left over from the ring system of Mars but undetected,
may be the reason for the failure of the recent Mars mission. If so, that
piece of debris and the non-detection of it, makes it a billion-dollar chunk
of asteroid material. We suggest the failure of modern astronomers to
understand the Mars-Earth Wars has been expensive.

Piece # 6. The gigantic volcanoes of Mars. The largest of the volcanoes of
tiny Mars is Olympus Mons, easily the largest volcano in the Solar System.
It is l3 miles high, and its blowhole (caldera) is 50 miles in diameter.

Its volcano base covers 110,000 sq. miles, which is equal to the area of the
state of Arizona. Its blowhole is equal to the area of Greater Phoenix, from
Sun City to Chandler, and Apache Junction to Avondale, some 1,900 sq. miles.

If we assume there were 100 Mars flybys of the Earth at each intersection
point, both the tubulustrium and armilustrium, and another series of Mars
flybys of Venus at each of its two intersections, approaching and departing,
it would be a total of well over 200 Mars skirmishes. Layer by layer, those
skirmishes created the volcano Olympus Mons, a volcano that contains 500,000
cubic miles of basalt.

With the assumption of these flyby counts at 200, Mars did erupt with an
AVERAGE of 2,500 cubic miles of lava per planetary skirmish, or flyby. And
then there were other simultaneous outflows from Ascraeus Mons, Arsia Mons
and Pavonis Mons, the second, third and fourth largest volcanoes in the Solar
System. To all this is added outflows from the rest of the Martian
volcanoes.

Mars has had so much volcanism for two simple reasons. One is that it has a
crust much thicker than the Earth's crust, and the other is that it has
suffered so many flybys (AND TIDAL CRISES) of Venus and the Earth. These are
simple deductions from Figure 1, if the Third Orbit of Mars endured for 10,000
years.

Piece # 7. The Gorges and Graben (Uplifted Blocks) of Mars. We estimate that
Mars was hit by, and absorbed about 40% of the fragments of Astra. This
added some 3% to its mass. Mars today has a circumference of 13,260 miles.
Before fragmentation, Mars had a smaller circumference, one of 13,125 miles.

For a man, putting on weight causes the purchase of a new, slightly larger
suit. For Mars, putting on weight caused its crust to split, producing long,
deep canyons. The longest and deepest is Valles Marineris, which is 4.35
miles deep and is 2,500 miles long.

Valles Marineris is the grandest canyon of our Solar System. Between the
canyons are block-like "graben". This is a German term widely used in
geology for uplifted block formations. Only we disagree with gradualistic
astronomers in that the graben were not uplifted so much as the canyons were
torn in long tears to accommodate the new mass, the new diameter and the new
circumference of Mars.

Piece # 8. The Dry River Beds of Mars. Mars essentially is an airless
planet. Its mass is 11% of Earth mass. Mars has an "escape velocity" of
only 5.02 km/s. The escape velocities of Venus and the Earth are 10.35 and
11.l8 respectively. With its modest mass, Mars is capable of retaining
heavier gases like carbon dioxide, argon and neon. But it cannot retain
nitrogen, water vapor and oxygen, lighter gases which floated off into space.

Nevertheless, scattered broadly across only one hemisphere of Mars (its
Eastern Hemisphere) are dry river beds. These dry river beds were produced
when an ice ball, possibly 650 miles in diameter, encountered the Earth Roche
Limit. Many of the icy fragments hit the crust of Mars. The energy of motion
of the ice chunks or fragments were instantly converted into heat energy.
The ices melted, evaporated and recondensed as sudden celestial water.

The waters flowed downhill, and gathered into great, turbid, roily, rampaging
rivers. Some of its rivers rampaged at 35 miles an hour on a planet with
one-third the gravity at its surface as the Earth. One river formed a lake,
and broke the dam. It outflowed in the manner of rivers when dams break, and
its width was 40 miles, half the width of the Amazon River.

In some cases, the rivers flowed across one side of a crater, filled it up,
and flowed out the other side. This means that whatever the dating of the
Astra fragmentation, the dating of this glacial fragmentation, which we call
the fragmentation of Glacis, was later.

Piece # 9. Thus it was that Mars acquired its version of an "ice age,"
sometime during the Third Orbit of Mars. As the waters flowed across the
cold surface of Mars, their temperatures dropped, and during that first cold
night, with temperatures approaching -200 degrees F., all the flowing waters
froze. No dry river bed today on the surface of Mars is longer than 450
miles. This is long enough for some 13 to l5 hours of hot, rampaging waters
at velocities of 30 and 35 mph to cool and to freeze.

In its Third Orbit, Mars approached hot Venus, and the Sun to approximately
65,000,000 miles. Its ices melted, vaporized and effervesced away from Mars.
The ice vapors formed a cometary tail. Greeks saw the cometary tail and
named it "the Fleece of Ares".

Ancient Hebrews saw the same cometary tail. This, the ice age of Mars, is the
foundation of, on one particular occasion, the Exodus, of their description
of the departing Mars as a "pillar of fire by night, a cloud by day."

More generally, elsewhere in their ancient literature, the Hebrews described
the cometary tail of Mars, a double tail, sometimes a quadruple tail, as the
fluttering wings of the destructive, feared "Angel of the Lord." The
Egyptians described it as the wings of the Phoenix bird, which approached
their land in approximately 54 year cycles. This same scenery is probably
the ancient source for the "Thunderbird" of the native Americans.

Through history, ever since Noah's Flood and up until modern times, the
appearance of comets has been considered an ominous, dangerous, fearful
phenomenon. This idea of fearing comets, found on most continents, has
outlasted the Final Flyby of Mars for over two millenniums. The Final Flyby
was March 20-21, 701 B.C.E.

Scar # 10 is the one leg of the twin tilts. Figure 2 illustrates the twin
tilts of Mars and the Earth during an October flyby. The two legs resemble
the two legs of the letter "A". Figure 2 also illustrates the two legs of the
two spin axes, of Earth and Mars, during a March flyby. The geometry
resembles the two legs of the letter "V". It is this phenomenon we are about
to discuss in greater depth, and are about to explain its process, or
mechanism.

Scar 11 is a different kind of a scar. The previous ten scars of Mars were
physical scars, still evident in our Solar System, many of them on the
surface of Mars itself. But man can suffer mental scars as well as physical
scars.

The Third Orbit of Mars, and its dreadful, destructive skirmishes with the
Earth produced gravitational conflicts, with resultant tides in the
atmosphere, huge tides in the oceans and tidal upthrusts of magma.

In addition, there were geomagnetic-electrical conditions such as
interplanetary discharges between our planet and Mars as well as flux tubes
of flowing electrons. In space, it seems that during flybys, the planetary
fields of Mars and the Earth actually "merged" for a few hours, only to be
shortly torn apart. This tearing apart process of the unified two-planet
field produced ancient paleomagnetic polarity reversals. Evidence lies in
ancient basaltic outflows of reversed polarities.

These happened in ancient times up through almost all of the 8th century B.C.
E.-until March, 701 B.C.E. As we said, Mars is a word slurred in Latin from
Magna (large) and the Greek word "Ares" into Mars. There were numerous other
Latin words relating to Mars or to planet wars in the heavens. From these,
Mars-related words have come into the English language over the last 2,000
years. Mostly, these words can be described as "bad action words."

From Germanic sources, and their word for Mars, "Tyr," we have trouble,
turbid, turbulent, turbine, disturb, etc. From the Latin word for star,
"astrum," we have the words disaster (from the evil star) and catastrophe
(thrown down from the evil star).

From Mars we have such bad action words as marauder, murmur, murrain, mortal,
mortician, morbid, moratorium mirage, marshal, etc. This is to say that the
Latin word for death, "mors", was closely related to the Latin word for Mars.
Mars flybys caused vast numbers of casualties.

From the Greek word for Mars, "Ares," we inherit such words as army, armor,
archer, archangel, argonaut, argument, armada, arrogant, arson, arsenal,
disarray, error and errant. In ancient Greece, an "Areopagite" was a seer of
Mars, and in later times that title was maintained but the function changed to
become a judge of law.

In India, in Indic the word for the planet Mars was and is "Indra." From
Indic we get India, Indian Ocean, Indian race, and incidentally from
"Vishnu", the Romans got "Venus." Thus the "Indo-Aryan" group of languages
which includes many dozen tongues, in this sense, can be dubbed the "Mars-
Mars" group of languages. The word for Mars in Sanskrit is approximately
"Arya".

Thus it is that Mars in its Third Orbit created much pain and countless
casualties for the human race. The pain and scars of Mars are gone, but the
linguistic vestiges of that pain and scars remain in our language. Such is
our eleventh piece of the quilt, as psychological scar rather than a physical
scar.

GENERAL GYROSCOPIC THEORY

Gyroscopes have been studied in Germany since the early l800's pioneered by
Bohnenberger, in England pioneered by Lang in the l830's and in France
pioneered in the l850's by Foucault. To date, so far as we know, all gyros
that have been studied have been "solid" gyros, made of wood, perhaps of
glass, plastic or metal.

The one exception is a that of a liquid gyro, liquid-fueled missiles. Boeing
scientists discovered that guidance systems for their missiles failed unless
an entirely new set of equations was introduced, because liquid fuels in a
rotating missile did not behave like solid fuels.

The difference is at the molecular level. When a solid gyro experiences an
out of line but opposing force on its axis, it is called a "torque". Torques
require responses of a gyro by a motion known as "precession." If a globe is
pushed, it shifts 180 degrees from the force. If a gyro receives a torque, it
shifts but in a different direction, either 90 degrees to the left or to the
right, depending on the direction the gyro is spinning.

Thus it is in a solid gyro that all molecules do, and must relocate, or
"precess" in lock step. Each molecule keeps its neighboring molecules. All
molecules maintain the same distance as before from the spin axis. Its shape
changes not. Its dimensions change not.

The Earth behaves .004% like a solid gyro, and 99.6% like a liquid gyro. Its
crust is the solid part. Its atmosphere, its oceans and its vast volume of
subcrustal magma comprise the liquid gyro. Of the three precessing fluids,
subcrustal magma is 99.99% of the total by weight.

Perhaps the best example of molecule reorganization is when water flows around
a 90 degree elbow in a pipe. The individual velocities of all water
molecules making this turn remain the unchanged. What changes is the
location of the molecules as the water twists around an elbow. In this case,
each molecule ends up with entirely new set of neighboring molecules but for
each molecule, velocity is unchanged.

Figure 2 Flowing Water Molecules Rounding an Elbow

Figure 3 Direction of Movement of Molecules of a Fluid Gyros- Note The
Distended Shape

Molecules of magma within the Earth rotate at any variety of speeds, from a
few inches up to 24,800 miles per day, or 1,034 mph per hour, if near the
bottom of the crust at the equator. It is merely a function of turning one
circle per day. Circles, and molecule paths near the spin axis are very
small, while they are intermediate near the top of the outer core, and
molecules have rapid velocities at the top of the magma, near the capping
crust.

When a torque is put on the Earth's spin axis, these fluid molecules will not
change velocities; they will exchange neighbors and assume new positions,
that is, new locations. Our problem is that modern science, to date, has not
found liquid gyros sufficiently interesting to study and to ascertain the laws
governing their responses to torques. Liquid-fueled missiles are the sole
exception.

When aerospace industries were manufacturing liquid fueled rocket systems, it
was discovered, first, that the traditional guidance mechanisms failed. Next
it was realized that the fuel in the rotating rocket, or "shell," was
behaving along entirely different lines than was the solid part of the shell.
A new system of equations had to be introduced into the guidance system to
take into account the difference in gyroscopic behavior for the liquid part
of the gyros.

We sense that it requires considerably less energy to relocate a spin axis on
a liquid gyro than relocating the spin axis on a solid one. Or put
conversely, torques on liquid gyros should create more extreme adjustments
than torques of similar magnitude applied to solid gyros.

With solid gyros, a torque creates a precession, and spin axis precessions
have three aspects. One is a change in tilt in its spin axis orientation.
Second, this change also involves a change in the location of the spin axis
on the gyro itself if it is a liquid gyro, like the Earth for instance. A
third change is, when friction is subtracted, a minute increase (never a
decrease) in spin rate. It is the tilts of the Mars' and the Earth's axis
toward space (and toward the fixed stars) that is of concern. The massive
lava outflows of the volcanoes of Mars, suddenly created during torque time,
indicate massive, sudden flows of magmatic (fluid) molecules there.

SPECIAL APPLICATION-THE THIRD ORBIT OF MARS

When a solid gyroscope experiences a repeated torque from the same location,
it tries to align its spin axis perpendicular to the torque. For gyros, the
perpendicular angle to a repeating torque is the most restful angle. This
can be demonstrated easily with a top on a table; however a top on a table
experiences friction from the table. Planets revolving in space experience
no such friction.

When we push a brick, or a wheel barrow, it moves 180 degrees away from us,
and that is "natural motion." If we were to push one end of the spin axis of
a rotating brick, or a rotating wheel barrow, it would move 90 degrees either
to the left or to the right, depending on the direction and velocity of its
spin.

Foucault discovered this in the 1850's and he achieved fame making the
strange-acting gyros the central part of a spectacular circus show. Gyro
responses, precessions to torques, seem weird as they relate to that to with
which we are familiar.

But in the case of the Third Orbit or Mars (represented in Figure 1), we have
a pair of gyros, Mars and the Earth, both receiving torques in an ALTERNATING
pattern. The first Mars-Earth torque, way back, must have been at the March
20-21 location in our orbit, and the second torque, some 54 years later as we
demonstrate elsewhere, was at the October 24 location.

All subsequent odd-numbered flybys were at the March location in our orbit and
all subsequent even-numbered flybys were at the October location. This is
not the same at all as a gyro receiving repeated torques at a single
location, the most frequent case.

As was mentioned earlier, the perpendicular, or 90 degree angle to a torque is
the most restful angle for a gyro. Perhaps it would seem to follow that a 0-
degree or a 180-degree angle would be the least stable. Not true. The most
chaotic angle for gyros happens to be the 45-degree angle.

THE MARS-EARTH CASE.

When the Earth and Mars were suffering through that long series of torques,
the spin axis of each planet repeatedly sought the most restful angle. In
general, collectively, after many torques, each spin axis sought the most
restful COMPROMISE. Theoretically the most restful compromise for an
alternating torque model is the 22.5-degree angle from their orbit planes if
the torques are alternating on opposite sides. This is midway between the
most restful and the least restful angle for torques repeating from one
location.

Figure 4 Earth-Mars spin axial scenarios

In the case of the Mars-Earth Wars, the Earth spent 40% of its time going from
October 24 to March 20, and 60% of its time going between March 2l and
October 23. Our planet's orbit was a near circle, and the torque positions
were close but not quite opposite. For Mars, with an orbital eccentricity of
.55, torques by the Earth and Venus were repeatedly being experienced in the
hotter part of its orbit, that part nearer to the Sun.

We have ascertained first the location of the perihelion of both planets, Mars
and the Earth, during the Mars-Earth War Era. It was half way between the
October 24 site and March 20 orbital location, which was the January 8
orbital location.

Todays's Earth perihelion is January 3 or 4, and is a vestige of the ancient
condition. For Mars, after its final flyby, its perihelion relocated 230
degrees in the counter-clockwise direction.

We have also ascertained that the ancient descending node of the orbit of Mars
occurred during its March 20-21 flybys of the Earth. This was 179 degrees.
The descending node of the modern orbit of Mars, at 49 degrees, is also 230
degrees counter-clockwise to it ancient descending node. The calculation is
179 degrees plus 230 degrees minus 360 degrees. This knowledge enhances our
confidence that Figure l accurately portrays the Third Orbit of Mars and the
Second Orbit of the Earth.

Figure 1 does not illustrate it, but the semi-major axes of both the Earth and
Mars in the Catastrophic Era were perpendicular to Jupiter, a consequence of
the 6:1 resonance between Mars and Jupiter. Today, the perihelion of the
Earth still is within 1.4 degrees of perpendicular to Jupiter's perihelion.
This vestige also enhances our confidence in our research.

Mars converted from its Second Orbit to its Third Orbit (the catastrophic
orbit) after it encountered, and destroyed Astra. On that occasion we
calculate Mars had an increase in mass of about 3%. But it changed energy,
and gained angular momentum. Its new orbit (the third orbit of Mars) dropped
within and inside the orbit of Venus.

The third orbit of Mars, as laid out in Figure 1, was in 1:2 resonance with
the Earth, 722 days to 361 days for an orbit. In addition, outside its
orbit, Mars was in 6:1 resonance with the giant Jupiter, and 15:1 resonance
with Saturn. These two planets functioned to "control" Mars and keep it in
resonance.

We suspect Mars and Venus were in or very close to a 5:16 orbital resonance.
At any rate, it was a heavy flyby of Venus, about February 1, 701 B.C.E.,
which set the stage for its Final Flyby of the Earth. This is treated in
another essay, unpublished but available at Pacific Meridian Publishing in
Seattle. F 1

Thus the orbit of Mars repeatedly was unsettled by flybys of Venus and of the
Earth, but its third orbit repeatedly was settled back down by Jupiter and
Saturn. Within this scene were alternating Mars-Earth flybys, and the
alternating torques and torque angles at the two orbit-crossing locations.
From this milieu resulted the compromise of nearly 22.5 degrees for the tilts
of both Mars and the Earth.

Including the final retilting in 701 B.C.E., Mars ended up with a tilt of 23.
98 degrees and the Earth with a tilt of 23.44 degrees. Perhaps it could be
said that when they experienced flybys, the spin axis of each planet
"curtsied" to the other, first in a March flyby and next in an October flyby
and so on for 10,000 years.

CONCLUSION

The twin tilts of Mars and the Earth were compromises, each spin axis seeking
the most restful angle to the long series of onslaughts they experienced.
Theoretically the most restful angle is 22.5 degrees. Both planets' spin
axes achieved approximately that most restful angle.

The twin tilts of Mars and the Earth are not coincidence, as the dogma of
gradualism advocates for Solar System history. We do not believe in such
coincidences. Neither are the twin spin rates of Mars and the Earth, of the
Jupiter and Saturn pair or of the Uranus and Neptune pair in any way
coincidences. They, too, are a result of a process and were acquired over
past aeons.

Fluid gyros need to be studied by scientists in order to expand our knowledge
of the laws of nature as they apply to gyros. This knowledge will help us
understand ancient shifts in spin axis tilts, and even more to the point,
understand ancient changes in location of the spin axis poles, from era to
era, on the planet Earth.

The key to understanding the twin tilts of the spin axes of Mars and of the
Earth is a long series of twin , alternating torques.

Planetary catastrophism is our doctrine; it is far more interesting, and more
fruitful than are the doctrines of the nebular hypothesis and its off-shoots,
and their dogma of gradualism, for Earth history.

Mars experienced two fragmentations on its Roche Limit. One was the demise of
the tiny planet Astra, which was about the diameter of Pluto, perhaps 1,500
to 1,600 miles in diameter. The demise of Astra provided an ancient ring of
debris around Mars, of which Deimos and Phobos are vestiges. Other small
debris almost surely is still there, but has escaped detection by
unsuspecting astronomers. Some of this debris very likely ruined the recent,
and very expensive Mars space mission.

The second fragmentation Mars experienced was an encounter with an ice ball,
perhaps 650 miles in diameter. The first fragmentation increased the mass of
Mars, and its girth, and changed its orbital energy. Its third orbit fell
to an orbit position with a perihelion inside the orbit of Venus. Then (and
then only) Mars assumed its catastrophic Third Orbit. The fragmentation of
the ice ball did not cost Mars much energy nor add much mass. Thus that
second fragmentation did not appreciably alter its orbit. But it did create
its ancient cometary tail, the so-called "Fleece of Aries."

Within the quilt work of the scars of Mars, one can detect the catastrophic
Third Orbit of Mars. Within the pieces comprising that quilt is found two
particular quilt pieces, One displays the near 22.5-degree tilt of the spin
axis of Mars and the other displays the near 22.5-degree tilt of our planet.
These tilts were acquired as a long term compromise in a double-torque
circumstance.

FOOTNOTE

Figure 1 Pacific Meridian Publishing, 13540 39th Ave. N.E., Seattle,
Washington, 98125. Price $5.00. Title, Energy and Angular Momentum Shifts,
Orbits of Mars, Earth and Venus, 701 B.C.E.
 

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