Electric                    Astral               Pre-historical
Universe              Catastrophism        Reconstruction


Articles & Products Supporting the Pre-historical Reconstruction and Plasma Cosmology
 home       features       science/philosophy       wholesale store       used books        contact

Invalid Argument Terms/Techniques
(some of these terms do not always imply an invalid
technique, but the ploy can be labeled as such)

Ad Antiquitam          Appealing to convention or traditional action as a proof of validity.

Ad hoc                   Simply means directed to a single proposition or issueŚno further implications intended. A proliferation of ad hoc adjustments to a theory indicates a crisis in acceptability.

Ad hominem (abusive)  Attacking the behavior or character of the man instead of his argument. Appealing to emotions and/or prejudices rather than to intellect or reason.

Ad Novitam               Appealing to modernity or newness as a proof of validity.

Associationism       Implying that an associative relationship is a causative one.

Affirming the Consequent   Within valid logic structure when we say that if A is true then B is true, we must prove A to be true in order to conclude that B is true.  Affirming the consequent is to erroneously conclude that A is true upon finding that B is true.

Authoritarianism      Unquestioning reliance on an authority or expert.

Composition Fallacy  Applying to the whole the properties of the parts.

Defeatism               Claiming an end is impossible to achieve as a reason for not following a line of reason.

De fide                    Literally "of faith", but implying revealed by god and requiring unconditional assent.

Denying the Antecedent   Within valid logic structure when we say that if A is true then B is true, we must not assume B to be false because A is false.  Denying the antecedent is to erroneously conclude that B is false upon finding that A is false.

Derision                      Using an emphasis on ridicule to assail a premise or argument.

Dis-accreditation    The ploy of pointing out a lack of formal accreditation on the other side.

Disaffirmation         A contradiction or repudiation of a premise formerly stated or agreed upon.

Dismissal                Dismissing a premise, hypothesis or theory before hearing the argument.

Dis-qualification      Excusing oneself by the ploy of being formally or academically unqualified.

Division Fallacy       Applying to the part what may be true of the whole.

Dogmatism             Unwarranted or arrogant stating of opinion or position.

Equivocation           Using the same term or word in different and incomparable senses.

Enthusiasm             Originally implying supernatural inspiration, it is often used to try to override logic.

Exaggeration            Overemphasizing to an extreme degree.

False Analogy           An offering of resemblances that don't really imply essential similarity.

Gamblers Fallacy    Thinking that some pattern of the past has an influence on a truly random event.

Genetic Fallacy       The Origin of something is erroneously ascribed.

Ignotum per ignotius    The attempt to defend an assertion against criticism by deriving it from some
   "general  principle" that is even more vulnerable to that criticism.

Illogical                  Based on faulty logic.

Invalid Emphasis    Accenting or stressing a word or phrase in a sentence where that accent or emphasis   changes the probably received meaning..

Invalid Syllogism    A syllogism is a major premise, minor premise and valid conclusion such as: All virtues are laudable, kindness is a virtue; therefore kindness is laudable. An invalid form would be: Some Danes are dogs, Lars is a Dane; therefore Lars is a dog.

Irrelevance            Where an argument that may support one conclusion is used to support another, or where the argument is misguided or oblique to the issue at hand.

Hyper-limitation      Intentionally and/or needlessly limiting the number of options or possibilities.

Hypocrisy*            Originally meant lacking in judgment or lacking the quality of careful and critical thinking.  Now used here to denote an agenda other than to arrive at the truth.

Loaded Questions    Asking questions where no simple response can be reasonable, or where any response implies acceptance of what is asserted as part of the question.

Mala fide                With intent to deceive.

Mal entendu            Misunderstood or poorly conceived.

Mal absurdum         Mis-characterization or invalid reduction to an absurdity..

Misinform               To supply with misleading information.

Non-comparable     Not worthy of comparison.

Non sequitur           Latin for out of sequence, a break in the chain of logic with an unwarranted leap.

Obscurum per obscurius       Any arguement that proves more obscure than what it supposedly clarifies.

Pedantism              A demand to prove the case within the conventional framework..

Petitio principii       Assuming in the premise of an argument the conclusion which is to be substantiated; a form of circular reasoning.

Post Hoc Ergo Prompter Hoc      An argument that implies that since A preceded B in time, A caused B.

Proton Pseudos      First or fundamental falsity or error. Many times arguments start with this up front or as a hidden assumption.

Red Herring            Raising an issue or challenge that is not relevant or is simply a distraction from the issue at hand.

Reductionism          Any method or theory that reduces data, information or processes to seeming equivalents that are less complex or developed than is the actual case.

Reification             The attempt to make a purely abstract idea or concept into a real-world extant entity.

Simplistic Demand   Demanding a simple or inadequate answer to a complex question or issue.

Special Pleading     Using a double-standard to require less rigorous treatment for one's own assertion than one would use against a counter assertion.

Straw man              Arguing against a premise no one has taken, knocking that premise down, and then assuming or implying that you have then discredited the original at question.

Tautology               A form of needless repetition or circular reasoning that does not advance understanding.

Ultra-Symbolism     Confusing the symbol with the reality for which it stands.

Unilateralism          Taking into account only one side of an issue or matter.

* Most men of good will would say they place the highest priority on knowing the truth, and they would deny being willing to deliberately promulgate falsehood for no higher purpose than to win an argument or to defend a personal position. These men would all claim to value the truth over what they really value more. It is in this most fundamental wayŚmen pay lip service to the truth, then let personal agendas overrideŚthat we are using the terms hypocritical and hypocrisy.  Any man driven to use invalid techniques can be considered to be a hypocrite.

The point that seems to be always overlooked by those think that the word hypocrisy refers to acting and not to a lack of judgment or critical thinking is that an actor is working from or is controlled by a script, something that is external to his true self, something artificial or unreal, something that is imagined or made up. It is in this more fundamental sense that the word takes on its deeper meaning.

The Mikamar Publishing site is dedicated to being circumspect and honorable in its presentation of material and arguments for support of positions. We pledge ourselves to avoid using these invalid argument techniques.

 home       features       science/philosophy       wholesale store        policies        contact
Mikamar Publishing, 16871 SE 80th Pl,  Portland  OR  97267       503-974-9665