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Copyright (C) 1981 by Dwardu Cardona

1. Introduction

Immanuel Velikovsky has attributed the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah to a close encounter of Earth with the planet Jupiter.(1) Basing his opinion on clues supplied by Velikovsky, but independently of him, James Strickling has suggested a similar cause.(2) The Book of Genesis, as well as extra-Biblical sources, blames the destruction on Abraham's god. From a religious point of view, Velikovsky's implication is that the planet Jupiter was the god of Abraham. Can this be substantiated?

Let us first ask: Who was Abraham?

2. Ur of the Chaldees

Abraham, originally called Abram, was born in Ur "of the Chaldees".(3) His father was named Terah. His mother's name remains a matter of controversy. "Baba Batra" gives it as Emtelai;(4) the Book of Jubilees as Edna.(5)

It is not known with certainty which was the city designated as Ur "of the Chaldees". Most authorities favor the well-known Sumerian city of ziggurat fame, the designation "of the Chaldees" being explained as arising later in time.(6) This finds some confirmation in the fact that legend connects Abram with the building of the Tower of Babel in the valley of Shinar,(7) which is assumed by most scholars to be the land of Sumer (later Babylonia).(8) Abram is also connected by legend with Nimrod,(9) a name that is purely Babylonian.(10)

Cyrus Gordon, on the other hand, has argued that Abram's domicile was a different Ur, northwest of Babylonia, and that it was called "of the Chaldees" in order to differentiate it from the Sumerian city.(11) The geography of the land and Abram's later route into Canaan makes this a more logical explanation.

Gordon is not alone in this supposition. Other Biblical scholars concur with him, and they do so not simply on his authority but because of several clues supplied by Genesis.

"Several members of Abraham's family including his brothers Haran and Nahor had names almost identical to the names of towns in the Aramean region. Other names, including Abraham and Jacob, were simply variations of Amorite personal names. The customs of the Patriarchs described in the Bible are also of this region in northern Mesopotamia."(12)

This would explain why, in later times, Israelite schoolchildren were taught to commence the recital of their nation's history with the words: "A wandering Aramean was my father."(13)

If this view is correct, Abram and his family could have been "Chaldians" (as opposed to Chaldeans), otherwise known as Urartu, as was their country in Assyrian. Ancient Urartu was the modern region of Ararat in Armenia. Alternatively, Velikovsky has theorized that "there is some ground to suppose" that the Chaldians "earned the name 'Chaldeans' (Casdim in Hebrew) because they were one of the branches of the ancient Chaldean people".(14)

It should also be pointed out that the oldest extant Bible, the Septuagint of the 3rd century B.C., makes no mention of Ur at all in connection with Abram.

3. The Iconoclast

It is generally assumed by historians that Abram and his family led a semi-nomadic life right from the start, that they never really resided in any city or town but only camped on their fringes.(15) Max Dimont does not agree.

"Who were they Terah, Abraham, Sarah, Lot? History does not know and the Bible does not identify them beyond tracing Terah's genealogy to Shem, one of the three sons of Noah. Was Terah a Babylonian? What language did he speak? What was his occupation? Certainly not a sheepherder, living as he did in one of the most sophisticated cities of that age."(16)

"Abraham may have been a Babylonian merchant prince before he set out for his journey to Haran, but the Old Testament made him a sheepherder."(17)

The Old Testament, however, only speaks of Abram and his family as sheepherders after they left Haran. Dimont, of course, was holding to the view that Abram's family resided in the Sumerian city of Ur. But whether there or in that other Ur in northern Mesopotamia or elsewhere in Armenia, tradition seems to uphold Dimont in his belief that Abram was a merchant prince. Jewish legend actually makes Terah, Abram's father, a manufacturer and seller of idols and household gods.(18) The names of some of these minor deities have even been preserved. There was Barisat, Marumath, Zucheus, and Joauv.(19) In a time when astral worship was rampant, it is not known what planets, if any, these deities personified.

One might be tempted to see in the last three names corruptions of Marmar (Mars), Zeus, and Jovis or Jove, which would indicate an interpolation from Graeco/Roman times. Louis Ginzberg offers a different explanation, stating that the names derive from Hebrew and Syriac words denoting "magnificence", "splendor", and "beauty".(20) If such is the case, the names would still be later interpolations for what would Syriac and Hebrew named gods be doing in either Sumer or Urartu?

This leads us to a question. Who were the acclaimed gods of the time of Abram?

The national god of the Chaldians, or Urartu, was Chaldi (or Chaldis).(21) It is not known what planet, if any, this deity personified.

The parochial deity of the Sumerian Ur, on the other hand, was Sin, usually identified as the Moon. Sin was also the god of Haran where Abram and his family later settled before emigrating to Canaan.(22) J. Gibson has argued that the names of the individuals of Abram's family Terah, Sarah, Milcah, and Laban reflect traces of Moon worship.(23) The identification of Sin as the Moon, however, is a fallacy. As far as the Babylonians were concerned, Sin was an aspect of the planet Saturn.(24)

As already stated, Jewish legend presents Abram as a contemporary of Nimrod who was both king and god of Ur. Nimrod was equated with Ninurta; and Ninurta was one of the Babylonian names of Saturn.(25)

Both Nimrod and Abram were also associated in Jewish legend with the building of the Tower of Babel. The phrase "bab-El" means "the gate of El". Like Nimrod, El was an ancient name for Saturn.(26) Whether the famous Tower was an actual edifice constructed by man or, as seems more probable, an astral phenomenon projected against the background of the sky, it would appear that Lynn Rose was correct when he suggested that it should be relegated to the age of Kronos/Saturn.(27)

In view of all this, it seems probable that the most prominent deity connected with Abram's early life was the planet Saturn. Jewish legend, if nothing else, intimates it.

Does this mean that Abram lived during Saturn's Golden Age? Obviously not. What is implied is that Abram appeared on the stage of history not long after the close of that age. Again, Jewish legend hints at this when it presents Noah and his son Shem, survivors of the Saturnian Deluge, as still living in the days of Abram.(28) Whether this is taken seriously or not, what is important is that during Abram's early years Saturn still seems to have held the allegiance of the people. And with Saturn, as with any other deity, there were lesser gods personal gods, household gods.

Allegiance to the gods, however, seems not to have been unanimous among the population of Ur, whichever Ur it might have been. There was one exception Abram himself. Early in his career he realized that the idols which his father manufactured and sold, as well as those in the temple and the king's house, were nothing but figurines and statues incapable of movement and speech. Abram riled his father for his devotion to, and worship of, these idols and ridiculed prospective buyers when his father forced him to sell them at the market place. He eventually embarked on a campaign devoted to the physical destruction of these idols both his father's and the king's for which, we are told, he was sorely persecuted.(29)

4. The Reformer

As might be expected, Abram did not stop at iconoclasm. Having denied the gods of Ur, he set up one of his own.

Legend informs us that Abram's conversion was a gradual one. He commenced by worshipping the Sun, the Moon, and the stars.(30) These did not, however, satisfy his needs and, having cast them aside with the idols of the land, he was soon preaching the existence of an all-powerful deity, creator and preserver of all that was.(31)

For this, too, he was persecuted(32) but he managed to win a few followers nonetheless.(33) Sarai, his wife (later renamed Sarah), aided him greatly. She earned the name Iscah (the seer) and, in some ways, she ranked higher than her husband.(34)

5. Shaddai

Who was this new god of Abram? According to Dimont:

"In the Old Testament, God is referred to in three ways: as 'Elohim,' which is translated as 'God'; as JHVH,' which is translated as 'Lord'; and as 'JHVH Elohim,' which is translated as 'Lord God'."(35)

This is incorrect. There are other names of god given in the Old Testament. In Genesis, besides Elohim, the term El Elyon is used.(36) In the Book of Job god is referred to as El, Eloah, and Shaddai besides Elohim and Yahweh.(37) Elsewhere, we even find god referred to as Sedeq (or Zedek) and Yahweh Sedeq.(38) Dimont also made the erroneous statement that Abram "met" the 'Lord God 'Jehovah' for the first time" in Haran(39) and that Jehovah (or Yahweh) became the god of Abraham.(40)

This is not so. The Book of Exodus, for instance, is very specific:

"And God spoke unto Moses, and said unto him, I am the Lord:

"And I appeared unto Abraham, unto Isaac, and unto Jacob, by the name of El Shaddai [translated as 'God Almighty' in the King James version], but by my name Jehovah ['Adonai' in the Douay] was I not known to them."(41)

This, as is now known, is nothing but a Yahwist attempt at equating Yahweh with El Shaddai but it does not hide the fact that it was Shaddai and not Yahweh that was the god of the Patriarchs. This conclusion is not merely derived from the implication in Exodus but is actually ascertained by passages in other parts of the Old Testament. Besides the quoted verse from Exodus "the name Saddai appears some forty-eight times in the Hebrew Bible".(42) W. F. Albright has rightly concluded:

"Unless we reject the pertinent Hebrew tradition entirely, we must regard Saddai or El-Saddai as the pre-Mosaic name of the chief god of the Hebrews . . . in the Priestly Document, from the sixth century (but incorporating much older materials), it is always the name of the God of the Patriarchs, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob . . ."(43)

Shaddai remained the god of the Hebrew Patriarchs until the advent of Moses who, at the Mount of the Law-giving, introduced the god Yahweh to the survivors of the Exodus from Egypt.

"The theophany of Sinai then represents the end of the domination of the Shaddai concept and the beginning of the rule of Yahweh."(44)

Who was this god, Shaddai, first introduced by Abram? Many have been the scholarly treatises and etymological hair splittings written and debated in an effort to finalize the exact meaning of the name.(45) In 1886 Friedrich Delitzsch connected the name with the Akkadian "sadû," meaning "mountain".(46) Although Delitzsch believed that the idea of the mountain implied an appellation meaning "high" and that Shaddai could be explained as "exalted, lord," the notion was later abandoned in favor of an actual "god of the mountain". "He of the Mountain" is Julius Lewy's translation.(47) Concerning this derivation, Julian Morgenstern had this to say:

"This interpretation of the name is alluring indeed. For certainly, in such case, the mountain in question would seem to be the cosmic mountain . . . whose top reaches up into the sky, and upon whose very peak was the throne of the supreme god of the entire universe."(48)

If this is correct it would equate Shaddai with Saturn who, as David Talbott has already shown,(49) was believed to have been enthroned on the peak of a mountain of light. At first sight this identification seems to receive further substantiation by the fact that Shaddai was often alluded to as El-Shaddai; and El, as already indicated, was one of the ancient names of Saturn.

Before we accept this verdict, however, let us dig a little deeper. Morgenstern, for instance, has argued that Exodus 6:2-3, already cited, was not only an attempt to equate the later Yahweh with El-Shaddai but with El and Shaddai; that, in fact, El and Shaddai were originally two separate deities.(50)

"The name is probably best known in the combined form, 'El Shaddai, which the authors of the Priestly Code represent as the name by which Yahweh revealed himself in the pre-Mosaic period. Outside of the Priestly Code this combination, 'El Shaddai, occurs only in Ez 10:5; but there undoubtedly, as Ez 1:24 indicates and as has been recognized by most commentators . . . the element, 'El, is an intrusion..."(51)

"Otherwise the name, Shaddai, appears in biblical literature either alone or, and much more frequently, in close association with . . . either 'Eloah' or 'El'."(52)

That El was a deity separate from Shaddai, Morgenstern also stated in these words:

" . . . there are numerous biblical passages in which 'El appears unmistakably as an individualized deity, or at least vestiges of this initial stage of development are distinctly apparent."(53)

And also:

". . . the parallelism in the use of the two names is so close that it is not always quite clear whether two separate deities are contemplated or only one single deity, designated by two names. Yet that back of this usage lay the concept of both 'El and Shaddai as distinct personalized deities is certain."(54)

If that is the case, the equation of Shaddai with Saturn through El falls flat and we are only left with Shaddai's Saturnian connection through the Cosmic or World Mountain. It should be pointed out, however, that whereas Saturn was definitely associated with the Cosmic or World Mountain, the Mountain itself became, in time, associated with other gods. Saturn, having been the original god of mankind, had many of his attributes "stolen" in an endeavor to elevate later deities to the same or a similar exalted position. Thus Zeus, the Greek Jupiter, became associated with Mount Olympus just as Indra, undoubtedly the Hindu prototype of the same god,(55)became associated with Mount Meru(56) which was Brahma/Saturn's original seat.(57) Likewise, but later, Yahweh himself became associated with various mounts Sinai, Horeb, and Zion.

Besides all this, the association of Shaddai with the Mountain is not universally accepted. Morgenstern, for one, is not satisfied with the connection.

" . . . despite the attractiveness of this interpretation of the name [as "He of the Mountain"], the etymology of [Shaddai] remains too uncertain to establish as definitive any theory with regard to the nature of this deity which may be based thereon."(58)

It must therefore be concluded that neither the appellation "El" nor the association, if any, with the Cosmic Mountain carry any weight in equating Shaddai with Saturn and the planetary identity of this god must remain, at least for the time being, a matter of conjecture.

6. The Migrant

The Book of Genesis does not tell us why Abram and his family left Ur to settle in Haran. Dimont hints that the departure may have been due to the danger imposed by the Assyrian hordes as they began to challenge the power of the Babylonians.(59) Other scholars suggest that Abram's move was only part of the general migration of the Aramean population which is believed to have occurred around the same time.(60) Jewish sources, on the other hand, while not all in agreement, supply reasons of their own. Flavius Josephus told how Terah departed because he came to abhor the city, since Haran his other son had recently died there.(61) Other Jewish legends indicate that the departure of Abram's family was forced on them by their continued persecution.(62)

In Genesis it is stated that Terah died in Haran.(63) Jewish legend, on the other hand, asserts that Abram forsook his father there.(64) The Book of Jubilees seems to reconcile the two versions by having Terah remain in Haran but still on good terms with his son.(65) It is assumed that Terah died in Haran but after the departure of Abram. Whichever the true account, it was not long before Abram left with his entourage to begin his wandering in the land of Canaan.(66)

Genesis also tells us that Terah's original intention had been to reach Canaan himself.(67) It does not tell us why he tarried at Haran. But here, too, Jewish legend does not agree, for it is stated there that when Abram left Haran he did not yet know where he was going.(68)

As already intimated, Abram's ever-growing tribe was not the only group to embark on a migrating career during this time.

"From what we know of the history of the second millennium B.C.E. it would be difficult to separate this [Abramic] migration from the extensive movements of peoples which were going on in the Near East. All over the ancient world masses were on the march, radically altering ethnic and political patterns."(69)

"Shortly before the year 2000 B.C. the whole Near East entered a dark, turbulent period. All across the Fertile Crescent waves of people known to us as 'Amorites' invaded and overturned the old centers of power . . ."(70)

"Throughout these turbulent years there were great population movements across the Near East . . . Around this time Amorite tribesmen poured into Canaan . . ."(71)

"The disorders gradually declined, and the armed invasions gave way to more peaceful migrations of nomadic clans . . . Among these wanderers, seeking grazing grounds for their flocks, were the Patriarchs."(72)

It was precisely from around Haran that the Arameans, clans of the Amorites, set out on their infiltrating migrations.(73) This state of affairs reminds one of the general movement of peoples described by Velikovsky as having taken place during the time of the Israelite Exodus from Egypt. Abram, like the later Moses, left the land of his birth at the head of a people to spend the remainder of his life as a wanderer in an effort to found a new nation and a new homeland for it. Like Moses, he formulated a new religion in honor of a new god and instituted new laws.

According to Velikovsky, the Exodus and movement of peoples concurrent with it was the direct result of a world shattered by Earth's near-collision with the proto-planet Venus, when mankind uprooted itself and wandered in search of a new, and perhaps safer, homeland. Could something similar have transpired in or around 2000 B.C. when Abram and his tribe, together with vast populations of the ancient Near East, uprooted itself in search of a new home and the comprehension of a new god?

7. The Astronomer

The study of celestial bodies is one of man's oldest sciences. Had there been any irregular motions in the heavens during the time under consideration (ca. 2000 B.C.), Abram should have been capable of detecting them as well as interpreting them.

Although it is held by some that Abram and his brothers could not have attended any of the city schools of the time,(74) tradition holds that Abram was well versed in astronomy and mathematics. It is recorded, for instance, that Serug, Abram's great-grandfather, taught Nahor, Abram's grandfather, the secrets of heaven.

"And she [Melka] bare him [Serug] Nahor . . . and he grew and dwelt in Ur of the Chaldees, and his father taught him the researches of the Chaldees to divine and auger, according to the signs of heaven."(75)

It is to be assumed that this knowledge was passed down from father to son and that Abram, whether he attended school or not, inherited it. In fact Berosus must have had Abram in mind when he wrote:

"In the tenth generation after the flood there was among the Chaldeans a righteous and great man, experienced also in heavenly things."(76)

Eupolemus, as quoted by Alexander Polyhistor, identified Abram by name in this connection:

"And in the tenth generation . . . in Camarina, a city of Babylonia, which some call the city Uria (and which is by interpretation the city of the Chaldees) . . . Abraham was born, who surpassed all men in nobility and wisdom, and who was also the inventor of astronomy and the Chaldaic art . . ."(77)

According to the ancients, not only was Abram knowledgeable in astronomy although that he was its inventor is nothing but a zealous exaggeration he also seems to have taught it to others.

"By reason of God's commands this man [Abraham] came and dwelt in Phoenicia [Canaan], and pleased their king by teaching the Phoenicians [Canaanites] the changes of the sun and moon and all things of that kind."(78)

The same is true for Abram's later sojourn in Egypt. Alexander Polyhistor, quoting Artabanus, wrote:

"Artabanus in his Jewish History says that . . . he [Abraham] came with all his household into Egypt, to Pharethotes the king of the Egyptians, and taught him astrology . . ."(79)

This is upheld by Eupolemus:

"And Abraham dwelt with the Egyptian priests in Heliopolis and taught them many things; and it was he who introduced astronomy and the other sciences to them, saying that the Babylonians and himself had found these things out."(80)

And also Flavius Josephus:

"Being.... admired by them in their conferences as a very wise man, and strong not only in intelligence but also in persuasive speech on whatever subjects he undertook to teach, he [Abraham] freely imparts to them [the Egyptians] the science of arithmetic, and also communicates to them the facts of astronomy."(81)

But are there any extant records that might indicate that Abram did in fact detect irregularities in the motions of the celestial bodies?

8. The Warning

Donald Patten, et al., in their own reconstruction of these past events, presented a quote from the Book of Jubilees as evidence that Abram was concerned with an impending danger approaching from the sky (82)

"And in the sixth week, in the fifth year thereof, Abram sat up throughout the night of the new moon of the seventh month to observe the stars from the evening to the morning, in order to see what would be the character of the year..."(83)

The writers mentioned above, however, suppressed the rest of the quote which continues by stating that Abram's intention in studying the sky on that particular night was to try and determine what "the character of the year" would be in "regard to the rains".(84)

Suppression of this sort harbors suspicion. That the reason behind Abram's intention, as given in Jubilees, could be a gloss inserted to account for what originally may have been left unexplained might be a valid argument if presented as such. But to ignore it altogether without any sort of clarification is to cast doubt on both the integrity of the writers and the seriousness of the topic being discussed.

One might of course argue that it is hard to believe that even an astrologer would have found it necessary to stay up all night in an effort to forecast the weather; or that the signs in one night's sky were ever believed by astrologers to foretell the rainfall of the entire coming year. Even so, any interpretation but the one supplied will have to remain in the realm of conjecture.

There is, on the other hand, another source, also used by Patten, et al., which does state that Abram detected some irregularities in the motions of the celestial bodies and this, in its turn, might be used to bolster the conjecture based on the quote from Jubilees. It also indicates, if nothing else, that Abram was really obsessed by the signs in the heavens. Flavius Josephus wrote:

"This [Abram's] opinion [concerning the oneness of god] was derived from the irregular phenomena that were visible both at land and sea; as well as those that happen to the sun and moon, and all the heavenly bodies, thus: 'If,' said he, 'these bodies had power of their own they would certainly take care of their own regular motions; but since they do not preserve such regularity . . . they are subservient to him that commands them...'."(85)

Other Jewish legends explain the above by stating that the irregularities of the heavenly bodies that Abram detected were merely their rising and setting as well as their periodic obscuration.(86) But while eclipses might have been considered as irregular phenomena, the rising and setting of the celestial host should, on the contrary, have been viewed as the very essence of regularity. Ginzberg, in his evaluation of this material, stated that "it is quite probable that Josephus . . . gives a rationalistic interpretation of [the legend]".(87)

Disorder among the planets would account for the irregularities "that were visible both at land and sea". Regular risings and settings and obscurations do not. If the planets, as per Velikovsky and others, went out of their courses and approached close to Earth, earthquakes and tidal transgressions would follow. If Earth itself was shifted in its orbit, the Sun and probably also the Moon would be seen to deviate from their wonted paths.

If such irregularites in the sky, the sea, and the land did transpire during the time under consideration, can we at this late date discover the actual cause of them? A Jewish legend gives some indication:

"God causes the planet Jupiter to appear in the east instead of in the west in order to teach Abraham not to attach any importance to astronomy."(88)

Elsewhere it is paraphrased as:

"God moved, for Abraham's sake, the star Jupiter from the west to the east."(89)

Such a reversal could mean that the Earth turned over on its axis in a manner recently postulated by Peter Warlow.(90) Although it is not stated in extant records that the Sun also changed its rising point during the days of Abram, we have seen that the luminary's motion was described as having become irregular. Had the Earth rotated then as it does now, Jupiter's appearance in the east should have been considered normal. We may therefore tentatively conclude that, during the time of Abram, the Sun rose in the west and set in the east and that, at some point during his life, east and west changed places. It seems, however, that this had not been so since time immemorial for it is stated elsewhere that just prior to the Noachian Deluge the Sun used to rise in the east as it does now.

"Seven days before the Deluge, the Holy One changed the primeval order and the sun rose in the west and set in the east."(91)

According to Herodotus, the Egyptians believed that the Sun had changed its place of rising and setting four different times in the past.

"The sun . . . on four several occasions, moved from his wonted course, twice rising where he now sets, and twice setting where he now rises."(92)

So also Pomponius Mela:

"The Egyptians pride themselves on being the most ancient people in the world. In their authentic annals . . . one may read that since they have been in existence, the course of the stars has changed direction four times, and that the sun has set twice in that part of the sky where it rises today."(93)

On the other side of the world, the Meso-Americans also believed in "four prehistoric suns" with shifting cardinal points.(94)

As already stated, Jewish legend informs us that one of these four occasions, perhaps the first within man's memory, took place seven days before the Deluge. Could another one, perhaps the second, have occurred during the life of Abram?

Terrestrial revolutions of this sort imply earthshakings on a large scale. And did not Abram detect the irregularities of the land and the sea? But Jewish legend is more explicit, for it is stated that:

"For fifty two years [previous to the destruction of the cities of the plain] God had warned the godless; He had made mountains to quake and tremble."(95)

Jewish legend stresses the changed position of Jupiter rather than the reversed motion of the Sun but this might be due to Jupiter having been a more prominent object in the sky than the very Sun. This would be in keeping with our conjecture that Abram lived just after the close of the Saturnian age. In the mythologies of the world it is stated that, following Saturn's departure, Jupiter became the sovereign of the sky and king of all the planets.

There is, in fact, good reason to believe that it was Jupiter that Abram had been keeping an eye on during his star-gazing vigils. It is said, for instance, that Abram's teacher was Zadkiel(96) and Zadkiel was the angel of the planet Jupiter.(97)

The reason for Abram's departure from Haran is given by Josephus as having been due to continued persecution.(98) It is interesting to note, however, that the Patriarch is said to have departed with his followers immediately after his detection of the irregularities mentioned above. This also lends some weight to Patten, et al.'s conjecture concerning Jubilees since it is also stated there that Abram left Haran not long after his night-long vigil in observing the stars. Could it be that Jupiter's antics served as a warning and that Abram decided that the open spaces of Canaan would be a safer place in case of a catastrophe?

. . . to be continued.


1. I. Velikovsky, "The Destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah," KRONOS VI:4 (Summer 1981), pp. 40-56.
2. J. E. Strickling, "Sodom and Gomorrah," S.I.S. Workshop, Vol. 2, No. 4 (April 1980), p. 4.
3. Most ancient sources on the subject proclaim this. But see further on in text.
4. "Baba Batra," 91a, Babylonian Talmud.
5. Jubilees 11:14.
6. N. M. Sarna, Understanding Genesis (N.Y., 1970), pp. 98-100.
7. L. Ginzberg, The Legends of the Jews (Phila., 5728-1968), Vol. I, pp. 175-176; Vol. V, pp. 198, 202.
8. N. M. Sarna, op. cit., p. 69.
9. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 186 ff., 207 ff.
10. See further on in text.
11. C. H. Gordon, "Abraham of Ur," Journal of Near Eastern Studies, 17 (1958), pp. 77-89; I. Velikovsky, Ramses II and His Time (N.Y., 1978), pp. 168-169.
12. G. E. Wright, et al., Great People of the Bible and How They Lived (N.Y., 1974), p. 27.
13. Ibid
14. I. Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 170. It should be noted that some of the assumptions of Lehmann-Haupt and others regarding the so-called "Chaldians" have been challenged by more recent scholarship.
15. G. E. Wright, et al., op. cit., pp. 27, 28, 34.
16. M. I. Dimont, Jews, God and History (N.Y., 1962), p. 28. (NOTE: Page numbers and quotations are taken from the 1966 Canadian Signet edition).
17. Ibid, p. 186.
18. L. Ginzberg, op. cit, Vol. I, pp. 195 ff., 209 ff.
19. Ibid., pp. 209, 211, 212.
20. Ibid., Vol. V, p. 217.
21. I. Velikovsky, op. cit., p. 168.
22. N. M. Sarna, op. cit., p. 98.
23. J. C. L. Gibson, Journal of Semitic Studies, VII (1962), p. 54.
24. G. Rawlinson, Herodotus (London, 1964), Essay X; A. Jeremias, Handbuch der Altorientalischen Geisteskultur (Leipzig, 1913), p. 96.
25. Cambridge Ancient History (3rd edition), 1, 2, 738.
26. D. Cardona, "Let there be Light," KRONOS III:3 (Spring 1978), pp. 34-35.
27. L. E. Rose, "Variations on a Theme of Philolaos," KRONOS V:1 (Fall 1979), p. 41. (NOTE: It is the present writer's contention that the Tower of Babel was the same as Saturn's Axis Mundi, also known as the Tower of Kronos, but also of Zeus. For an intimation of this Saturnian appendage see D. Cardona, "The Mystery of the Pleiades," KRONOS III:4 (Summer 1978), pp. 38-39 and D. Talbott, The Saturn Myth (N.Y., 1980), pp. 172 ff.)
28. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 205.
29. Ibid, pp. 195 ff., 209 ff., 213 ff.
30. Ibid., p. 189.
31. Ibid., pp. 189 ff., 195 ff., 209 ff.
32. Ibid., pp. 198 ff.
33. Ibid., pp. 195 ff., 203.
34. Ibid, p. 203. (NOTE: For Sarai as Iscah rendered Jescha in the Vulgate and Douay versions see Genesis 11:29).
35. M. I. Dimont, op. cit., p. 29.
36. L. Della Vida, "El 'Elyon in Genesis 14 :18-20," Journal of Biblical Literature 63, (1944), Pp. 1-9.
37. J. Morgenstern, "The Divine Triad in Biblical Mythology," in ibid, 64 (1945), p. 17.
38. R. A. Rosenberg, "The God Sedeq," Hebrew Union College Annual, Vol. XXXVI (1965), p. 170.
39. M. I. Dimont, op. cit., p. 29.
40. Ibid., pp. 4041.
41. Exodus 6:2-3.
42. W. F. Albright, "The Names Shaddai and Abram," Journal of Biblical Literature, 54 (1935), p. 180.
43. Ibid., p. 188.
44. Ibid., p. 193.
45. Ibid., pp. 180-193.
46. F. Delitzsch, Prolegomena (1886), pp. 95-97.
47. J. Morgenstern, op. cit., p. 36.
48. Ibid.
49. D. Talbott, op. cit., pp. 172 ff.
50. J. Morgenstern, op. cit., p. 19.
51. Ibid., p. 18.
52 Ibid., p. 19.
53. Ibid., pp. 21-22.
54. Ibid., p. 22.
55. For Indra as Jupiter see the author's forthcoming paper "The Cause of Saturn's Flare-Up".
56. V. Ions, Indian Mythology (London, 1967), p. 33.
57. D. Talbott, op. cit., p. 189.
58. J. Morgenstern, op. cit., p. 36.
59. M. I. Dimont, op. cit., p. 28.
60. G. E. Wright, et al., op. cit., p. 27.
61. Flavius Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews (also known as The Jewish Antiquities), 1, 6, 8.
62. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, pp. 204-205.
63. Genesis 11:32.
64. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 218.
65. Jubilees 12:6-31.
66. This is in accord with all Abrahamic accounts.
67. Genesis 11:31.
68. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 218.
69. N. M. Sarna, op. cit., p. 100 (emphasis added).
70. G. E. Wright, et al., op. cit, p. 27.
71. Ibid
72. Ibid.
73. Ibid.
74. Ibid., p. 34.
75. Jubilees 11:8-9.
76. Flavius Josephus, op. cit., I, 7, 2.
77. Eusebius Pamphili, Praeparatio Evangelica, IX, 17, 418d. (Emphasis as given.)
78. Ibid
79. Ibid, IX, 18, 420.
80. Ibid., IX, 17, 419c.
81. Flavius Josephus, op. cit., I, 8, 2.
82. D. W. Patten, et al., The Long Day of Joshua and Six Other Catastrophes (Seattle, 1973), p. 257.
83. Jubilees 12:16.
84. Ibid, 12:16-17 (emphasis added).
85. Flavius Josephus, op. cit, I, 7, 1 (emphasis added).
86. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 189.
87. Ibid, Vol. V, p. 210.
88. Ibid., p. 175.
89. Ibid., p. 225.
90. P. Warlow, "Geomagnetic Reversals?" J. Phys. A., 11:10 (Oct. 1978), pp. 2107-2130; reprinted in SISR III:4 (Spring 1979), pp. 100-112. [But see the editorial commentary by Ellenberger in KRONOS VI:4, p. 51, n. 11. LMG]
91. "Tractate Sanhedrin," 108b, Babylonian Talmud
92. Herodotus, Historiae, II, 142.
93. Pomponius Mela, De Situ Orbis, I, 9, 8.
94. I. Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision (N.Y., 1950), pp. 112-113, where other sources are cited.
95. L. Ginzberg, op. cit., Vol. I, p. 253. [Cf. Worlds in Collision, pp. 153-156. LMG]
96. Ibid., Vol. V, p. 417.
97. Ibid., p.164.
98. Flavius Josephus, op. cit., I, 7, 1.

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