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KRONOS Vol VI, No. 1

Calendrical Changes And Sothic Chronology


Copyright (c) 1980 by the Estate of Immanuel Velikovsky

At the basis of Sothic computation lie the assumptions that the Earth, in historical times, did not change its position in the solar system, or the position of its axis, or the length of its year. Should even one of these assumptions prove false, Sothic chronology loses its basis. In Worlds in Collision (Part I, Chap. 5; Part II, Chap. 8), I endeavoured to show that each of these changes took place, and more than once during historical times. There I wrote (p. 124):

"There exists a direct statement found as a gloss on a manuscript of Timaeus that a calendar of a solar year of three hundred and sixty days was introduced by the Hyksos after the fall of the Middle Kingdom; the calendar year of the Middle Kingdom apparently had fewer days" (Cf. pp. 123, 336, 338).(1)

The cataclysm that brought the downfall of the Middle Kingdom (ca. -1450) also brought a year of different length; and for the next half-century it was not yet firmly established when a new disruption of the celestial order took place. Then, for the major part of the time till the end of the first quarter of the eighth century, a calendar of 360 days, of twelve months of thirty days, was observed in the Old as well as in the New World.

But after -776, at fifteen-year intervals, more disruptions of the celestial order took place which necessitated additional calendar reforms. New calendars were introduced whose starting points were variously marked by: the beginning of the Olympic games (-776), the Foundation of Rome (-747), the Era of Nabonassar (-747), or the time of raash (commotion) in the days of King Uzziah (-747). Also in Egypt, under Libyan rule (the eighth century), natural events caused the inauguration of a new calendar (W in C, pp. 210-211, 239, 355).


1. "The length of the year during the Middle Kingdom is not known from any contemporaneous document" (W in C, p. 123); the Palermo stone, representing the length of the year during the Old Kingdom of Egypt, has a year of 320 days (L. Borchardt, Quellen und Forschungen zur Zeitbestimmung der Aegyptischen Geschichte, Vol. 2 (Cairo, 1935), p. 33, note).

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