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Open letter to science editors


KRONOS Vol. I, Issue 1

The Great Terror
Zvi Rix

The Roots of Terror

In a letter to the journal Pensee, Mr. Douglas Den Uyl raised an important point of inquiry regarding a possible relationship between the political structure and behavior of ancient governments and the natural order or disorder of things.

"In recent issues of Pensee and in Velikovsky's own work ostensibly little, if anything has been said which would interest the student of politics. Yet I believe that certain questions can arise from Velikovsky's work concerning this matter. What is most directly suggested to me is a question concerning the type of regime (and its actions or policies) and the stability of the natural order. By today's standards. the regimes of very ancient cultures would be considered most oppressive and immoderate." Den Uyl goes on to suggest that "a clue to types of regimes existing in very ancient times could come from the fact of an unstable natural order. We notice today, for example, that unstable social situations are often met with an increase in governmental coercion. If this is a natural response, then societies affected by natural instability (either in their current memory or by respected folklore) may give rise to 'irrationally repressive' regimes. The specifics of any regime would, of course, depend upon a variety of influences, but more basic elements of a regime's character may follow directly from the stability or instability of the natural order. The fact that very ancient regimes appear to us to be chaotic and unprincipled may be due to the simple fact that nature herself was in such a state."

"Moreover," Den Uyl speculates, "one might hypothesize that one of the reasons for the relatively late development of political philosophy (or philosophy as such) in man's history was due to the inability of otherwise intelligent men to find a natural order stable enough to give rise to genuine comprehensive principles."

In conclusion, Den Uyl feels that "even if these conjectures are totally fallacious, it seems clear to me that if Velikovsky is bringing us to a new wave of interdisciplinary synthesis, the student of politics will have to be included also."[1]

There is certainly no gainsaying that terror plays a decisive role in the shaping of present day life.[2] It should be remembered that the U.N., when confronted with this problem, chose first to define and then explore the background of the term "terror." The ultimate success of such a venture, however, depends upon the depth and open-mindedness of the study. The emotional roots of terror are not to be found in the surface soil of consciousness for they were long ago deeply implanted in the psychological fabric of mankind's makeup; and the nourishing sources of this terror have repeatedly been intimated by Velikovsky.

"One of the most terrifying events in the past of mankind was the conflagration of the world, accompanied by awful apparitions in the sky, . . . a primeval chaos bombarded by flying hot stones, the roaring of the cleft earth, and the loud hissing of tornadoes of cinders."[3]

Nevertheless, the human mind is all too inclined to evade troublesome and fearful memories. Plato was already aware of this psychological problem when he states in the Laws (III) that "at any rate they seem to have been strangely forgetful of the catastrophe"; or when he narrates through the mouth of another that "you remember but one deluge, though many had occurred previously (Timaeus 23B)."

A modern author and professor of history, Frank E. Manuel, also indicates that man is not yet cured from the traumatic experiences of yore. Quoting Count Buffon, Manuel recounts the calamitous suffering of early man-". . . the sight of the combats of Earth and Sky, the source for the myth of the Titans and their assaults against the gods; the belief in the real existence of a malevolent Being, the fear and the superstition which are its first product; all these sentiments based upon terror from then on [after the deluge] possessed the heart and the mind of man forever. Even today he is hardly yet reassured by the experience of time, by the calm which succeeded these centuries of storms . . . "[4]

Giambattista Vico and Nicholas-Antoine Boulanger two catastrophist forerunners of Velikovsky, likewise "unveiled a postdiluvian world that was a veritable apocalypse of violence. Eruptive, convulsive, threatening nature, overwhelming in its power, was the primary source of the impressions written upon the tabula rasa of the primitive mind."[5] In studying the writings of these eighteenth century theorists and others, Manuel concluded that "the one emotion pervading primitive life as portrayed by the psychological historians of religion was terror."[6]!

The psychology of fear which still absorbs the thought of the forum of the United Nations was already "an area of knowledge upon which eighteenth-century thought shed great light, though it was of course, by no means a complete intellectual novelty, since in this sphere too the philosophes drew heavily from the writings of Greek and Roman antiquity . . . When Petronius and Statius wrote 'Primus in orbe deos fecit timor' the fear theory had long since been part of the Western rationalist tradition . . . Sextus Empiricus in his treatise Against the Physicists cited Democritus of Abdera as the original source for the doctrine that the gods were born of fear. 'For when the men of old time beheld the disasters in the heavens, such as . . . thunderbolts and collisions between stars, and eclipses of sun and moon, they were affrighted imagining the gods to be the causes of these things'."'[7]

A psychologist of much later date still adhered to the fear theory. "It is unthinkable that fear should not be inherited in the flight of time . . . Indeed, I believe that one kind of fear alone is delivered and this is the fear of god and his punishment. Millenniums of belief cannot be surmounted by intellectual effort alone. We are unable to cut the threads which join us to the past. They remain invisibly existent and they clutch us firmer than we think."[8] "We still tremble today as a consequence of the deluge and our institutions still pass on to us the fears and the apocalyptic ideas of our first fathers. Terror survives from race to race . . . The child will dread in perpetuity what frightens his ancestors."[9]

The words of the Decalogue 'were not heard by Israel alone, but by the inhabitants of all the earth."[10] They were announced under terrifying circumstances and under the threat of punishment. These laws given on Mt. Sinai were revealed under the fearful imprint of "the celestial body* that the great Architect of nature sent close to the earth "[11] The Old Testament leaves no doubt that the event was to be conceived by the people as being arranged because of their sins and was meant to evoke guilt feelings: "For God is come to prove you; and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not" (Ex. 20:17).

[* The author is here referring to the Planet Venus at a time when its form, according to the cosmological theories of Immanuel Velikovsky, was essentially comet-like and physically threatening to the Earth - the Ed.]

Such guilt feelings are incompatible with personal well-being and with the ideal the superego setsovercome for itself. They have, therefore, to be overcome by effacement of the law or by the unburdening of one's sins on a scapegoat. Man needs salvation from the curse of the law (Gal. 3:13). Without the law there is no sin (Romans 5:12; 7:8). Before the Christian Age, Ovid had already expressed these thoughts. "Golden was this first age, which, with no one to avenge, without a law, of its own will, kept the faith and did the right. There was no fear of punishment, no threatening words were to be read on brazen tablets (cf. 2 Cor. 3:13); no suppliant throng gazed fearfully upon its judge's face; but without judges lived secure" (Metamorphoses I, 907).

Identical ideas were echoed by Martin Luther. "Luther [made] the dismal discovery that it is the 'Divine Law' that confers upon this uncanniness of the world its power to drive man into oppression and fright-until desperation. 'Were there no law, there would be no sin and no death'."[12]

Anna Freud has also explained how the superego shields itself from the discomfort of bad conscience. "It [such an ego] understands what passes as proscribed, but protects itself against the displeasure of self-critic with the aid of these defence-mechanisms [i.e., by projecting the forbidden impulses on an outer object] . The raging against the [fictive] culprit in the outer world serves it as forerunner and equivalent for its own guilt feeling " [13]

The subject of projection, where the roles of persecutor and persecuted are exchanged, where "the need to attribute to other persons or groups qualities and emotions belonging to the self . . ., when one cannot face in oneself the conflict created by the existence of these very same qualities and emotions," has been amply dealt with by N. W. Ackermann and M. Jahoda.[14] In addition, the authors conclude that even "today, often devoid of religious connations, the Jew nevertheless remains the symbol of what man fears; his own weaknesses, his own dark impulses, and his own conscience."[15]

Terror and Anti-Semitism

Why should the Jew remain the symbol of what man fears; why do the Jews so often cause civilized peoples to regress to primitive terror?[16] The Law was given under conditions which were very trying on the healthiness of body and soul. It was pedagogically wrong, as history shows, to have chosen a Venus (Typhon) approach as the proper moment for the announcement of the Decalogue. Tradition has it that Moses was an expert in star gazing, an art which would have enabled him to foretell the approach of the comet (Venus) three days in advance. At a time when sorcery was kept in high esteem, it must have been felt that the appearance of the celestial intruder had been conjured up, either by prayer or by some other spell. Thus, the faculty of being able to summon the dreaded stars by charms was gradually conferred on the whole of the Jewish people.

Velikovsky, in attempting to prove that none of the old authors before Manetho harboured any animosity against the Jews, quoted from, among others, Theophrastus (b. 390 B. C.). "They are a race of philosophers; they do not cease to occupy themselves with the divinity."[17] Theophrastus' next statement, however, which Velikovsky omitted, infers that the Jews may have been regarded not only as a mysterious, but possibly dangerous people. "During the night they contemplate the stars, raising their eyes towards them and invocating them in their prayers."[18]

The strange spectacles which Moses and Aaron enacted together with their rod, such as transforming it into a serpent (Ex. 7:9,10) or using it to change the Egyptian waters into blood (Ex. 7:20), may have gained them the reputation of magicians but at the cost of losing their popular attractiveness. Last, but not least, the most distasteful act which lessened Moses' popularity was his bidding: Nobody is allowed to approach a woman (Ex. 19:15). This demand for renunciation of natural impulses, enforced by a most severe threat, must have also contributed to a sense of terror and hatred.

Typhon, who had caused the Egyptian plagues, and Moses, who was thought to have conjured him up, were merged by the ancient onlookers into a single agent. As so often happened in antiquity, the celestial model and its earthly representative were invested with the same symbols (e.g., Moses was given the horns of Venus cornuta)[19] There were, then, a considerable number of factors in cultural experience and historical sources which lent themselves to the identification of Moses with Typhon, and Manetho had only to repeat an old notion when he merged Moses with Typhon [20]

It is worthwhile to remember that Schelling recalls, on the authority of Plutarch, that the Greek logographs believed the Jewish religion to be founded upon or connected with the fleeing or chased Typhon.[21] Velikovsky, who was psychoanalytically schooled, attributed Manetho's confusion of the Hyksos with the Jews to a "mistake, accidental or deliberate,"[22] never considering a slip of the pen, such as Freud would have ascribed to unconscious hostility. It is especially noteworthy that the section of Ages in Chaos concerning "The Confusion of Hyksos and Israelites and the Beginning of Anti-Semitism"[23] has so far failed to provoke little, if any, significant comment in scholarly circles.

The Hyksos

The hateful conduct of the Hyksos invasion of Egypt has been fully described in Ages in Chaos[24] though, some additional aspects possibly contributing to the loathing in which they were held have yet to be considered. The hieroglyphic inscription on the black granite shrine of el-Arish, discussed rather thoroughly by Velikovsky in Ages in Chaos, reads among other things: "Then the children of the dragon Apop, the evildoers [of Usheru] and of the red country came upon the road of At Nebes, invading Egypt at nightfall . . . They [the gods] are the rescuers of Ra from Apop."[25] A nightfall during which the sun was deemed to be in danger must have been an extraordinary event. It had to be a prolonged darkness, since it would have taken several days for invaders starting from the Arabian desert to reach Egypt.[26]

To the Egyptians, the ravaging nomads appeared to be the off-spring of the intruder who played havoc in a similar manner in the celestial sphere. They were conceived as the children of the dragon Apop (i.e., Seth-Typhon). Later interpreters equated them with the Hyksos. "Le récit de cette attaque [related on the shrine of el-Arish] s'inspire du souvenir des invasions venues de l'Est, et, en particulier, de l'invasion des Hyksos, qui ont . . . saccagé les premières villes qu'ils rencontrèrent . . . avant d'atteindre Memphis."[27]

The Hyksos and Amalek

Velikovsky's conclusion that the Hyksos were identical with Amalek[28] follows also from semantic arguments. In discussing the former, Manetho explained their being named Hyksos in the following way. "Their race bore the generic name of Hycsos [Hyksos], which means 'king shepherds.' For Hyc in the sacred language denotes 'king,' and sos in the common dialect means 'shepherd' or 'shepherds'; the combined words form 'Hycsos'."[29] The Hyksos, however, were not called "King-Shepherds" because they were thought to be of royal blood, but because they were imagined to be tribes descended from the blood of Moloch. The name Moloch is spelled in Hebrew with the same consonants (Mlch) as the expression for king (Melech). According to Pauly-Wissowa's Realenzyklopädie der klassischen Altertumswissenschaften (art. "Moloch"), the nomen divinum Moloch can be traced without doubt to the common semitic word for king.

The Septuagint renders two passages, where the Hebrew text speaks of Moloch (11 Kings 23:10; Jerem. 32:35), as Molox Basilei (Kingly or King Moloch). When the sacrificial Moloch-cult came into conflict with the law, it was nonetheless continued, but without the official blessing of the priests. Its survival had to be shamefully admitted by later generations; and as a subterfuge, the now abhorred Mlch, received the vowels of the Hebrew word for shame (Boshet), while the noun for chief (Captain, King) retained what was considered to have been the original pronunciation ( Melech ) . *

[* Moloch or Molech - "the deliberate misvocalization of the name of a pagan god, the consonants, king, being retained and the vowels of shame, used." - see The Interpreter's Dictionary of the Bible, III (N. Y., 19621 pp. 422-423 "Molech, Moloch" - Ed.]

In Ages in Chaos, Velikovsky made a linguistical Hebrew correction concerning the expression "Sending of Evil Angels" which he rendered instead into "Invasion of King-Shepherds.[30] In so far as it is permissible to eject the silent letter aleph in "mishlakhat malakhei roim" to correct its meaning from "Sending of Evil Angels" into "Invasion of King-Shepherds," it appears still more suggestive to pronounce the phrase, by a change of vowels, Molkhei-roim instead of Malkhei-roim, thereby rendering the sense into "Moloch-Shepherds" or "Moloch-Nomads." Further, the inscription Mlch st (Mlchst) studied by Clermont Ganneau[31] means Molochset (i.e., Moloch-Set). The reading "King is Set," in preference to the now prevailing version of Mlc el (Mlch'el) -"King is El" significantly alters the essential] sense.[32]

With the meaning of the nomen Hycsos, being better rendered as "Moloch-Shepherds" rather than as "King-Shepherds" (as proposed by Manetho), it is even more plausible to derive Amalek from Moloch (Molech) because of the semantic affinity. In the same vein in which Mader maintains the conception King is Set, he also adheres to the paraphrase King is Typhon. Typhon was called King of the red country.[33] He was perceived as a red being and the victims offered to him ( the Typhonic sacrifice) had to be of the same color.[34]

Therefore, fiery-colored men were sacrificed as Typhonians at the grave of Osiris (Diod. Sic. 1,88) or burned alive in Eleithya and their ashes thrown to the winds, according to Manetho in Plutarch (Isis and Osiris, ch. 73). Porphyrios, using the same source as Plutarch, reports about similar cults in Heliopolis. The victims belonged to a people called "Tekennu".[35] It is speculatively tempting to compare the name Tekennu with Retenu (Rezenu) which, according to Velikovsky, "is probably the 'Arzenu' (Palestine) of the bible."[36] Many of the inhabitants of Palestine were red- or blond-haired Semites, a people who were avoided because of this color. "It was because of the red colour of Typhon that red-haired people had been sacrificed, and that one disliked to meet red men or, in other words, come in contact with Semites."[37]

The color problem undoubtedly augmented the animosity already attached to the Hebrew people by the events surrounding the scene of the revelation and the lawgiving. Furthermore, it added to the confusion of Hyksos with Israelites which, for its part, contributed to the distortion of the entire ancient timetable of history down to the time of the death of Alexander the Great. The claim that Israelites and Hyksos were identical could never have been sustained if it had been properly recognized that the Israelites were already on their Exodus when they met the invading Hyksos (Amu)-Amalekites. A literary echo of the story of the children of the dragon Apop, the rebels who fell over a cultivated and helpless Egypt, as related on the shrine of el-Arish, is preserved on the so-called Potter-papyrus* in the Leningrad Ermitage. The penetration of the Nile delta by these new marauders (Typhonians) occurred at a time when the solar god was indignant, for it had been eclipsed during the rule of these foreigners (the Typhonian period).[38]

[* Most interpreters give the subject the title "Topferorakel" (potter's oracle).]

Egypt was dominated by foreigners at a time of chaos, signaled by the Egyptian darkness and the other Egyptian plagues. The suppressors ruled between the Middle and New Kingdom and were called Hyksos ( Amalekites ) . The archetypical conception of a Typhon's brood (children of the dragon Apop) preceded the Manethonian confusion of Hyksos and Jews. "The Cacodemon Typhon with his brood is already known to us from the Heracles myths as a personification of the destructive and ruinous elements in nature, who are subdued to world harmony by the divine fighter." [39]

At whatever date the equation of Typhon's (dragon's-serpent's) brood with the Jews took place, by the time of the spread of the New Testament, we find this conception already firmly established. Thus, Jewish scholars are called serpent's and viper's brood in the Gospels (Math. 3:7; 23:33) and the ignominious expression remained attached to the Jews even in later times. In The Jews and their Lies, Martin Luther wrote that the Jews are a serpent's brood and one should destroy them. And in the Trial of the Major War Criminals (XII, 318) in Nuremberg, Julius Streicher declared: "A book I had, written by Dr. Martin Luther, was confiscated. Dr. Martin Luther would very probably sit in the defendant's dock today, if this book had been taken into consideration by the prosecution." [40]

Venus: Destroyer or Savior?

The picture of the Comet Venus [image] A sight of fear or of salvation?

The terror engendered by the appearance of the "Comet" Venus, as described by Velikovsky in Worlds in Collision, still continues to play havoc with mankind's soul and expresses itself in the most bizarre forms. Ever since Venus' traumatizing effect, its initially produced terror has subconsciously transcended the centuries. This terror has wrongly become associated with an imagined enemy (the Jew) whose real role in history has been quite different from that applied to him by fanciful and wishful thinking. In order to remedy the situation and to render innocuous the harmful emanations arising from a traumatized background, it is imperative to plunge into the past, to recover and revive the burdensome archetypes hidden there. Once they are made accessible to the conscious mind, the fearful memories can be dealt with and the disturbing elements rooted out.

Has any undistorted evidence survived in the records of past generations which would enable us to accomplish our task, to refresh our recollection and decipher the lost language of symbolism? Perhaps. It would seem that cometary Venus is actually pictured in an ancient hieroglyph whose correct reading has so far escaped detection. Paul Ernst Jablonski reminds us that the famous "cross with the handle," (the ankh) which so often recurs on ancient Egyptian monuments, represents simultaneously the phallus and the planet Venus. "Observavi illic, . . ., crucem illam celeberrimam ansatam, in vetustis Aegyptiorum Monumentis toties occurrentum, [image], quae phallum designat, Pani Mendesio dedictatum fuisse. Et eodem plane signo, Veneris Planetam ab antiquis temporibus, in hunc usque diem significari consuevisse, nemine fugit."[41]

Why is it that the lovely planet Venus (Phosphoros) was represented by the phallus? The phallus is no attribute of a round body, but it is an adequate characteristic of a comet whose tail would have rendered it, in the conceptual world of the onlookers, into a masculine being.

The Typhonic past of Venus was readily repressed because of its distressing contents. The original picture of the Comet Venus [image], the ankh, now no longer remembered as a symbol of fright, was applied to the new phase of Venus [image], which had metamorphosed into a planet. Thus a correct reading and understanding of the ankh sign became impossible. The present symbol for the planet Venus [image] is perhaps a simplification of the "winged-tailed" cometary appearance of Venus as it may have once appeared to the eye. Therefore, what we possess today is nothing more than a concretized symbolic version of Venus as it once was.

There are various versions with regard to the source and significance of the ankh. They deviate from the truth to the same extent to which the interpreter resists the unveiling of troublesome experiences. The role in which the ankh was conceived by the ancients is retained in the clearest form in some papyri which constitute part of the Egyptian Book of the Dead. An illustration of the Sunrise in Budge's version of The Book of the Dead ( 1901, Vol. 1, p. 73) shows "the emblem of life [image] which has arms that support the Disk of the Sun "[42] Budge considers the scene "only a vignette intended to accompany the Hymn to the rising Sun that forms part of the introductory matter to the Chapters of The Book of the Dead which we find in some of the oldest papyri of the Theban period." The author then continues: "In the Papyrus of Ani we see the Sun's disk supported by a pair of arms which emerge from the sign of life; this, in its turn, is supported by the pillar which symbolizes the tree-trunk which contained the dead body of Osiris. [43]

The fearful Comet Venus became the light bearer and the hated devil -Lucifer- who fell from heaven (Luc. 10:18) transformed into a star which "shines more brightly than all the other stars" (Ovid, Met. II, 722). As morning star it "banished night and ushered in the shining day" (Ovid, Met. VIII, 1). Once the sign of dread and fright, the ankh later came to symbolize the peaceful Dawn.[44]

Venus, with its luminous tail, was simultaneously seen on many places of the globe. The phenomenon was described by different peoples in similar terms. This led Velikovsky to write: "These parallels in observations made in the valley of the Ganges, on the shores of the Euphrates, and on the coast of the Mexican Gulf prove their objectivity."[45] The objectivity of the apparition is also proved by the large dissemination of the ankh throughout many areas of the Earth. "The crux ansata form is exceedingly widespread. Not only is it found in the sculptures from Khorsabad, from Nineveh . . . but further east in Persia and India.[46] More remarkable still is it to find the same sign in far-distant Peru, where it appears as an actual shape cut through great blocks of granite, both ancient and modern at Cuzco, and also in the remarkable hieroglyphics of the Incas . . ."[47] The emblem also occurs in Lapland and on many Runic documents found in Sweden and Denmark.'[48]

Nevertheless, the postulation that the ankh was restricted to Egypt has been maintained and caused an ardent debate. One protagonist, Jean-Antoine Letronne, posed two questions:

  1. La Croix ansée Egyptienne a-t-elle été employée par les chrétiens d'Égypte pour exprimer le Monogramme du Christ?
  2. Retrouvè-t-on ce symbole sur des monuments antiques étrangèrs a l'Égypte?
The author then supplied himself with the answer he preferred. "I shall restrict myself strictly to the actual facts which I have advanced, and which were contested, that is to say, that the Egyptian crux ansata is nowhere else found than in Egypt." [49] The continued text shows the discussion Letronne had with his chief opponent Raoul-Rochette. "This assertion is founded on a review of all known monuments; I did not find a trace of this cross on any Greek, Etruscan or Latin monument. The total absence of the Egyptian sign, outside of Egypt, originated in me the thought that it never left there, and that in the future it will no more be found somewhere else than up to this day."[50] "The learned scholar thinks thus that the crux ansata occurs often in the Christian monuments of Rome. I, on the contrary, maintain that one does not find any example, neither in Rome nor in any other country, except Egypt. The cause of this error, if I am allowed to qualify his opinion as such, stems, according to my judgment, from his [Raoul-Rochette] confounding the Monogram of Christ with the Egyptian crux ansata . . . to which it resembles in appearance"[51]

The resemblance was not due to appearance alone, however. Jesus Christ symbolized eternal life (Rom. 6:23) as did the crux ansata seen frequently on pre-Christian tombs.[52] This may be comparable to "the representation of the Birth of Venus . . . on sepulchral monuments, obviously with an esoteric twist which alluded to rebirth and eternal life."[53]

Writing in the same issue of the Académie des Inscriptions et Belles Lettres,[54] Raoul-Rochette demonstrated with many examples that the crux ansata was widely spread throughout the Mediterranean area. "The conclusion obtained from these observations is that the theory of resemblances and differences cannot be applied to these kind of signs, considering that alphabetic letters employed by tribes of the same people have undergone so many variations without their sense being altered; from which follows by the strongest reasons that symbols of a form consecrated to express a certain religious intention, and employed by different peoples, who might have drawn from a common source of belief, might have obtained in this consecrated form changes of detail, without . . . the general identity of the sign having to be missed and without its proper significance having to be altered."[55]

Jean-Antoine Letronne, who denied the common root of all faiths and beliefs, concluded "in a work crowned by the Académie des Inscriptions . . . that, given the precision of the Egyptian methods of geodetic surveying, the declaration of Fréret [against Newton's contention that the ancient evidence on astronomical events is unreliable] 'is verified or at least ceases to be too exaggerated."'[56] In this opinion, Letronne differs with Velikovsky who asks " . . . what structural strength is there in the edifice of astronomical chronology founded on the assumption that none of the natural elements changed in the least since the earliest time?[57] Regarding Egyptian chronology, in particular, Velikovsky has made the point that astronomical computations for chronological purposes were made obsolete by the confusion of Venus with Sirius.'[58]

L. C. Stecchini is quite entitled to feel discomfort regarding the precision of geodetic surveys at the time of the first dynasties in Egypt. Taking into account that the Earth's axis may have tilted several times since, it is really quite unexpected that he has "never been able to establish an error of latitude greater than a minute or an error of longitude greater than possibly five minutes in ten degrees."[59]

Whatever the reasons are which detract from more certain truth, the likelihood remains that the balance of the physical world as well as the stability of the human soul and mankind's mentality were simultaneously shaken by Venus. Panic fear was the lot of mankind in previous periods and it is seized by terror unto this very day. In this context, it is of especial note that Pan and Venus have the same emblematic depiction. Reviewing a representation of the sunrise (cf. R.-Rochette, MI, pl. 73, 1833), K. O. Müller wrote that "Helios and Eos, guided by Pan-Phosphoros, arise with their team from a ship . . "[60] A later commentator on this observation remarked that "Muller also calls the Pan of our 'Sunrise' a harbinger of the morning quite casually and without connection to any real antique conception."[61]

The Legacy of Terror

Considering the antiquity of the "Panic Fear," Trevor-Roper is quite entitled to state that such stereotypes as the undefined 'great fear' "once they are built up, . . . can last for generations, even centuries."[62] Furthermore, he asserts that "so firmly had the mythology of Satan's kingdom been established in the declining Middle Ages that in the first centuries of 'modern' Europe . . . it became the standard form in which the otherwise undefined fears of society became crystallized." But even in still more recent time the collective emotion created by fright goes unchecked. Such a fear wave "has been the Popish Plot" in England, while "in America today it seems to be the Red scare."[63]

It appears that the originator of this "undefined fear," Satan, has always been "The Red." "Devourer is his name. O Fearful one, who art over the Two Earths, Red one who ordered the block of execution..."[64] Was not the fearful "Red one," Typhon, the king of the red country who may have sprung originally from the "Red Spot" of Jupiter?[65]

From time immemorial, comets were feared. They have caused uproars in heaven and revolutions on earth. The question posed by Konrad von Megenberg, a writer of the fourteenth century, as to why comets signify combat and blood-shedding was partially answered by Nicolas-Antoine Boulanger and his contemporaries. The latter explained the flood of Ogyges "as a consequence of a change in Venus"* while "Fréret the academician had identified the Boeotian deluge with the passing of comets." Boulanger found "a common cosmographic origin in the deluge" and was fully aware of the traumatic legacy of that deluge (see supra.). "Boulanger declared the deluge to be the fons et origo of all vicious legislation, all wicked political doctrines, all false and harmful religions . . . we shall there see the origin of the terrors which throughout the ages have alarmed the minds of men always possessed by ideas of devastation of the world. There we shall see generated the destructive fanaticism, the enthusiasm which leads men to commit the greatest excesses against themselves and against their fellows, the spirit of persecution and intolerance which under the name of zeal makes man believe that he has the right to torment those who do not adore with him the same celestial monarch, or who do not have the same opinion he does about His essence or His cult."[66] Thus, comets or other celestial bodies were, at the least, felt to be linked with watery disasters. Yet, Boulanger's cosmographic awareness regarding diluvial origins and the transmission of diluvial fear, for all its astuteness, underscored only one of mankind's many cosmic catastrophic concerns. Fire was another.

[* See I. Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision, p. 158 - the Ed.]

The never resting glowing furnaces of Dilbat-Venus, already mentioned in cuneiform inscriptions,[67] remain deeply engraved in human memory. Bachofen's saying that the terrestrial development of the Pelasgians never stopped until it succeeded in fulfilling the cosmic example in its whole truth concerns all humanity. Auschwitz and other places of horror, with their smoking crematoriums clearly reveal how mankind makes every conceivable effort to establish on earth a replica of the celestial hell and terror it had once experienced.[68] But, in order to accomplish this, totalitarian domination by a tyrannical government, whose essence is terror, must first be formed.[69] Terror is a device by which the unconscious satisfies its deep longing to appease the menacing powers of the universe. It "eliminates individuals for the sake of the species, sacrifices the 'parts' for the sake of the 'whole'."[70]

A life shared with terror is a situation fraught with conflict. Sacrifice demands further sacrifice, in a self-feeding way that can never be sated, in order to continually propitiate gods who are thought to be bloodthirsty and vengeful but who also gave the very law which forbids murder. In the meantime, the resultant guilt and punishment are conveniently projected on victims, who, by a self-righteous defence mechanism, are made the culprits. Thus, projection is an important characteristic of a process of unreal thinking.

In conclusion, it is only fitting to quote the words of Peter Bayle who was possibly the first to express the cause of such maladjustment in meaningful summary language-

"A night sky with very brilliant stars! Perhaps there are among these stars some which are erratic, in the double sense of the word, in that they themselves are aberrant, and cause aberrance?"[71]


[1] D. Den Uyl, "Nature and Politics," Pensee (Winter 19731, p. 48. (emphasis added)
[2] The author of the present article intends to deal with a far more deep-seated terror than that perpetrated on society by the ruthless radicals of recent international notoriety. However, as an example of the more familiar common aspects of terror see "Terror at the Olympics," Newsweek, Sept. 18, 1972, pp. 24-32 and "The Terrorist International," Newsweek, Ibid., pp. 33-34. - the Ed.
[3] I. Velikovsky, Worlds in Collision (Doubleday: Garden City, 1950), p. 298.
[4] F. E. Manuel, The Eighteenth Century Confronts the Gods (Cambridge, Mass., 1967), p. 140.
[5] Ibid,, pp. 140-141.
[6] Ibid., p. 143 (emphasis added).
[7] Ibid., pp. 143-144.
[8] Transl. of W. Stekel's, Nervöse Angstzuöstände und ihre Behandlung, 1921.
[9] Nicolas Antoine-Boulanger as quoted in The Velikovsky Affair (New Hyde Park, 1967), "The Inconstant Heavens," L. C. Stecchini, p. 121.
[10] Velikovsky, W in C, p. 98.
[11] Ibid., p. 94.
[12] Transl. of F. Gorgarten in H. Bornkamm's, Luther im Spiegel der deutsehen Geisteswissenschaften, 1955, p. 301.
[13] Transl, of A. Freud, Das Ich und der Abwehrmechanismus, 1946, P. 136.
[14] N. W. Ackermann and M. Jahoda, Antisemitism and Emotional Behaviour, 1950, pp. 56ff.
[15] Ibid,, p. 61.
[16] M. Samuel, The Great Hatred, 1943, p. 12.
[17] 1. Velikovsky, Ages in Chaos (Doubleday: Garden City. 1952), P. 96.
[18] Transl. of Th. Reinach, Textes d' auteuurs grecs et romains, 1895, chap. 5, "Theophratse cite' par Pophyre."
[19] See R. Mellinkoff, The Horned Moses in Medieval Art and Thought (Los Angeles, 1970) –the Ed.
[20] I. Velikovsky, "Astronomy and Chronology," Pensee (Spring-Summer, 1973), p. 39.
[21] F. W. Schelling, Die Philosophie der Offenbarung, XIV, p. 126.
[22] Velikovsky, A in C, p. 81.
[23] Ibid., p. 94.
[24] Ibid., p. 95
[25] F. L. Griffith, The Antiquities of Tell el Yahudiyeh . . . 1887-1888 (London, 1890): also see Velikovsky, A in C, pp. 39ff.
[26] Velikovsky, A in C, pp. 61ff.
[27] G. Goyon, "Les Travaux de Chou et les tribulations de Geb d'aPres le Naos 2248 d'Ismailia," Kêmi, Revue de philologie et d'archeologie égyptiennes et eoptes, VI 11936). pp. 1-42.
[28] Velikovsky, A in C, pp. 55-101.
[29] Ibid., p. 58 and n. 7: also see the article "A Note on the term Hyksos'" KRONOS, I no. 2 (Summer 1975! - the Ed.
[30] Velikovsky, Ibid., p. G9, the section "Malakhei-Roim - King-Shepherds."
[31] C. Ganneau, "Sceaux et Cachets Israélites, Phénicients et Syriens," Journal asiatique VIII, serie I, 1883, pp. 130ff.
[32] E. Mader, "Die Menschenopfer der alten Hebraer und der benachbarten Volker, Ein Beitrag zur alttestamentlichen Religions-geschichte , " Biblische Studien, XIV, Bd . , 5 and 6. Heft, 1909, p. 38.
[33] Ibid., p. 29.
[34] Ibid., p. 32.
[35] Ibid., p. 20.
[36] Velikovsky, A in C, p, 173.
[37] Transl. of G. Ebers, Aegypten und die Bücher Moses, 1888, I, p. 245.
[38] Cf. U. Wileken, "Zur ägyptischen Prophetie," Hermes, vol 40, 1905, p. 550. Nevertheless, G. Manteuffel would still cast the Jewish people in the role of the invading enemy - see G. Manteuffel, "Zur Prophetie," Papyri der Società. Italiana (P.S.I., VIII, 982) in Maspero Mélanges, II, 1934, pp. 119ff.
[39] Transl. of F. C. Movers, Die Phonizier, 1841, I, p. 522
[40] See Trial of the Major War Criminals, XII, 318.
[41] P. E. Jablollski, Pantheon Aegyptorum, Pars II, Lib. III, Cap. VI, para 3, p. 1750.
[42] The Medieval astrological-astronomical sign for Venus [image]. which has lasted to the present day and supposedly took the form of an ancient copper mirror, was most likely a later Christian rationalization of the pagan motif - the Ed. - see A. Whittick, Symbols, Signs and their Meaning (London, 1961 ), p. 188. Also see E. W. Budge, The Book of the Dead (University Books: New Hyde Pack, 1960), Plate II referred to on p. 233.
[43] Budge, Ibid., 1901 version, pp. 88 and 73 also see p. 233 of the 1960 reprint - "The ankh rests upon the top of the Tet, which rests upon a reed mat. The Tet represents Osiris, who was. in one aspect, the dead sun of yesterday . . . (emphasis added). Velikovsky identifies Osiris with the planet Saturn (W in C, p. 183) - the Ed.
[44] Cf. Sir Peter le Page Renotlf s edition of the Book of the Dead, "The Life-Work of Sir Peter le Page Renouf," Vol. IV, 1907, ch. XVI, p. 35.
[45] Velikovsky, W in C, p. 164.
[46] Cf. J. E. Cirlot, A Dictionary of Symbols (N. Y., 1962), pp. 66-68 and 139 - the Ed.
[47] F. T. Elworthy, The Evil Eye, 1895, p. 280.
[48] Ibid., p. 284, n. 439.
[49] Transl. of "Examen Archéologique de ces deux questions." Mémoires de l'lnstitut Royal de France, Acad. des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Tome 16, 2, 1846, p. 236, cf. Rev. Archéologique, IIe, Annee, 1845, p. 665.
[50] Letronne, Ibid.
[51] Ibid., pp. 243ff.
[52] Cf. Raoul-Rochette, "De la Croix Ansée ou d'un signe qui y ressemble," Académie des Inscriptions et Belles-Lettres, Tome 16, 2, 1848, p. 325.
[53] A. A. Barb, "Diva matrix," Journal or the Warburg and Courtauld Institutes, Vol. 16, 1953, p. 206.
[54] Raoul-Rochette, op. cit., p. 325.
[55] Ibid., P. 362.
[56] See The Velikovsky Affair, op. cit., p. 165.
[57] Velikovsky, "Astronomy and Chronology,'- op. cit., p. 48.
[58] Ibid.
[59] The Velikovsky Affair, op. cit., p. 167.
[60] Transl. from Handbuch der Archxiolog. Kunst, 1835, p. 610.
[61] Transl. from F. G. Weycker Alte Denkmäler, 1851, 3.Th., p. 64.
[62] H. R. Trevor-Roper, The European Witch-Craze of the 16th and 17th Centuries (Harper Torchbooks: N. Y., 1969), p. 165.
[63] Ibid.
[64] Life-Work of Sir Peter, op. cit., Vol. IV, 1907, p. 40.
[65] See Velikovsky W in C, "The Red World." One is also reminded of Edgar Allan Poe's short story The Masque of the Red Death - the Ed. Speculations about the specific nuance of Jupiter's Red Spot have not stopped even in recent times. Bertrand M. Peck, writing about The Planet Jupiter 1958)! is most hesitant to apply the expression "a fully fiery red" to this matrix from which Venus may have sprung. He prefers to consider "that the lavish application of bright red pigments to the numerous tinted drawings that are extant conveys a very exaggerated impression of its true aspect." - see Chap. X. The author "has never noticed anything more striking in its coloration than a faint tendency to pinkness." A Venus probe (no. 41 of Oct. 18, 1967 caused scientists at the time to inform the public that "the surface of Venus could be described 'as a hot stony desert, tinctured with ferric oxide rust'." - see Jerusalem Post, Oct 31, 1967, "2 Soviet unmanned spacecraft achieve link-up in orbit." Ferric oxide (F203) lends its rusty colour to the red iron ore which is called hematite or blood-stone. - Z. Rix. (On the Red Spot of Jupiter also see Science News, Sept. 21, 1974 vol. 106, no. 12, pp. 188-187 and Science News, Dec. 7, 1974, vol. 106, no. 23, pp. 356-35i. - the Ed.l
[66] The god-monarch was given a temple to inhabit, offerings animal and human to nourish him because he was conceived of as god the destroyer, an evil king who had to be appeased with bloody sacrifice." –see F. E. Manuel, op. cit., p. 221. With whatever pretexts or appellations (i.e., 'holy war' or holocaustical purgation) the sacrificers try to justify before themselves or others their sacrifices, the essence and background of these traditions remain always the same. "The fascination which human sacrifice has exercised over various peoples at a relatively high stage of culture at once suggests that it must be a social reaction to some deep-seated social sentiment. The subject . . . cannot be treated any longer as a mere antiquarian horror. On the contrary, it goes to the very heart of the permanent principles of social life and organization. Scientific ethics has to admit that the causes which produced human sacrifices still exist, and that they produce results identical in substance, though differing in name." -J. Hastings, "Human Sacrifices," Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics, 1913.
[67] Cf. S. Weidner, Handbueh der babylonisehen Astronomie, 1, p. 7.
[68] See Manuel, op. cit., p. 215 - "En passant Boulanger demonstrated that so monstrous a conception as Hell, which had tormented mankind for centuries, could never have been conceived by reasonable, natural man unless he had experienced in the flesh pangs as violent as the Hell of the religionist." - the Ed.
[69] Cf. Trevor Ravenscroft, The Spear of Destiny (N. Y., 1973)- W. C. Langer, The Mind of Adolph Hitler (N. Y., 1972); E. Fromm The Anatomy of Human Destructiveness (Fawcett Crest Books: Greenwich, 1973), pp. 411-481; J. C. Fest, Hitler (N. Y., 1974), pp. 387ff. - the Ed.
[70] H. Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism, 1958, the chapter "Ideology and Terror: A Novel Form of Government," p. 465.
[71] P. Bayle, Historiseh-kritisches Wörterbuch, 1813.

Editor's Note: KRONOS, an independent journal, is in no way affiliated with Chiron or Pensee or the Student Academic Freedom Forum.

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