Site Section Links
The Third Story
The Nature of Time
Nature of Time video
The Nature of Space
The Neutrino Aether
Nature of Force Fields
Origin of Modern
Niagara Falls Issues
Climate Change Model
Climate Change Questions
Modern Mythology Material
1994 Velikovsky Symposium
Horus Journals TOC
Kronos Journals TOC
Pensee Journals TOC
Velikovskian Journals TOC
Selected Velikovskian Article
State of Religious Diversity
PDF Download Files
Open letter to science editors
HORUS VOL I. Issue 1
Rocks From Where?
by Alex Marton
You mean we didn't have to go to the Moon? Or to send probes to Mars to get them?
An article in the 17 March, 1983 issue of the British magazine New Scientist announces
in its title: Extraterrestrials have landed on Antarctica. Before 1969, all the expeditions to
Antarctica had together found only four meteorites. Then, in December 1969, Japanese scientists
stumbled upon nine black fragments within a short distance from each other.
After studies of these finds were reported at a meeting of the Meteoritical Society in Davos,
Switzerland, in August 1973, excitement gripped the Antarctic scientific community, and many more finds have
come to fight since then. Among them, one meteorite stands out: ALHA81005. The reason it is
unique among Antarctic meteorites is that it is suspected of coming from the Moon. From the time of its
discovery in January, 1982, it was obvious that this specimen differed from any others found in the area.
When a thin slice was examined under a microscope at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington,
striking similarities were noticed between ALHA81005 and lunar highland breccias. Analytical results show
that the calcium, magnesium, and iron silicates have ratios of iron to manganese oxides that are
typically lunar. These minerals are embedded in white fragments of calcium and aluminum-rich rocks like the
ones that make up most of the crust in the lunar highlands and give it the characteristic color we see from Earth.
The lunar ratios are quite different from those found in typical meteorites. The quantities and
ratios of rare gases, rare earth elements, and oxygen isotopes also point to the sample as a lunar
rock rather than a typical meteorite. The presence of a Moon rock on Earth presents the scientific
establishment with a challenge of the highest order. The author of the New Scientist article,
Dr. Ursula B. Marvin, states that in order to escape the Moon's gravitational field, an object has
to be accelerated to a velocity in excess of 2.4 kilometers per second.
She indicates that the only force believed to be powerful enough to cause this to happen is
the high-energy impact of a large asteroidal fragment on the surface. According to ballistics
theory, she goes on, the only rocks that would be accelerated to escape velocity are deep-seated
target rocks at ground zero, and aft material at ground zero would be melted to glass by the shock.
Unfortunately, sample ALHA81005 is neither deep-crust material nor shocked to glass, but is a
mixture of the material typically found in the shallow lunar soils.
The dilemma posited by the article is that either: a) meteorite impact dynamics have to be totally
re-examined, and possibly revamp the range of objects defined as meteorites; or b) this sample did not come
from the Moon, but is so Moon-like that it presents us with a problem even more intriguing than the first one.
If this weren't bad enough, the possibility that a certain class of meteorites on Earth
originated from Mars is positively distressing. The escape velocity from Mars is given as five
kilometers per second, and it is postulated that "no target material should survive the shock
pressures accompanying the requisite impact." Be that as it may, nine meteorites, one of them
Antarctic sample EETA7900 1, are suspected to havecome from Mars. These strange rocks are known
as "SNCs," meaning shergottites-nakhtites-chassignites, names derived from the locations where
they were first found (Shergotty, India; Nakhla, Egypt; Chassigny, France).
The chemical and isotopic compositions of the SNCs are meteoritic rather than Earthlike,
so they could not have escaped the Earth due to an impact and then fallen back. But they are
also not Moon-like or asteroidal. If none of these bodies are the likely source, then what?
Based on the estimated age of the rocks (1.3 x 109 years, too young for typical
meteorites), and the fact that Mars is assumed to have been sufficiently hot recently to have
produced igneous magmas, it was speculated that Mars might be a likely source.
In addition, Dr. Donald Bogard of the Johnson Space Center has found trapped in these
meteorites noble gases similar to those of the Martian atmosphere analyzed by the Viking probes.
There is by no means universal agreement; Ann Singer of the State University of New York favors
an asteroidal origin, saying that "calculations of impact probabilities in the asteroid belt show
that a few dozen times in the history of the solar system the proper sequence of impact, melting,
slow cooling, and more impacts should have occurred (emphasis added)."
As far back as June 1980, a Scientific American article titled "Basaltic Meteorites"
by H. Y. McSween and W. M. Stolper argued that a certain class of basaltic meteorite, the
shergottite, was evidence of volcanic activity in its planet of origin, which was not the Earth.
They felt that likely sources were the asteroids, Jupiter's satellite Io (which is known to be
volcanic), or possibly other bodies. But their preference, based both on volcanism and on rock
composition, is Mars. Their principal reservation is that the known mechanisms cannot provide
these rocks with enough energy to escape the Martian orbit. If this were possible, they speculate,
there ought to be also lunar meteorites on Earth, and of course, as of that writing, none were known.
Indirectly, at any rate, this objection goes away.
The news about these rocks has been well covered. Articles or reports have appeared repeatedly
in Science News. In Science Frontiers William R. Corliss routinely picks up these
items, and contributes his own editorial commentary, generally partial to catastrophist interpretations.
Based on the geochemical evidence, there is a lot of support for the proposition that these meteorites
do come from the Moon and from Mars, and there is much excitement about the idea, as there should be.
The problem is how to explain it, because prevailing notions of the probable mechanisms cannot
reconcile the fact that the material suffered enough of an impact to be accelerated to the required
escape velocity, but maintained its structure in spite of the shock. A more likely context, in a
Velikovskian scenario, was provided by Ralph Juergens years before these meteorites were found and
analyzed. [Pensee IX and X, 1974].
If some 2700 years ago the Moon and Mars participated in electromagnetic interactions of cosmic
proportions, witnessed from Earth and preserved in myth and legend, many surface features of both
bodies can be explained readily. Current theories about the origin of these scars are often strained,
incomplete, or deal incongruously with the various parts of the puzzle. Based on the evidence
marshaled by Velikovsky, it is likely that phenomenal plasma discharges took place between the Moon
and Mars, with the Moon as the cathode and with Mars as the anode.
Given a close enough approach of the two bodies, and their interaction with the Earth's magnetosphere,
the electric field between anode and cathode had to build to an intensity great enough to pull electrons
away from the cathode. It is not the intent here to go into a detailed analysis of discharge phenomena,
and how they might occur under the specific conditions of three (or four, including Venus) charged
planetary bodies interacting with the additional variable of gravitational effects. But assuming that
these close encounters were accompanied by local heating and volcanic activity, it is conceivable that, in
addition to plasma discharge, chunks of solid or partially molten matter were ejected from the various bodies.
Thus, the meteorites believed to have come from the Moon and from Mars would have escaped
their original gravitational fields without suffering impact shock.
[*!* Image: ALHA81005,0]